
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076734X, EISSN: 20767366
Volume 13, Issue 3 (December, 2012)
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1. 
GLOBAL HYBRID METHOD FOR COMPUTING THE MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN A POINT AND A PLANE PARAMETRIC CURVE 
by Zhinan Wu

Abstract 
Global convergent hybrid method is presented for computing
the minimum distance between a point and a plane parametric curve. First, It uses
a first order geometric iteration method. If iterative parametric value satisfied
local Newton convergence condition and convergence in appropriate area, then turning
to Newton iteration method. This hybrid method’s sensitivity to the choice of initial
values is nonexistence. Experimental results show that the algorithms under consideration
are robust and efficient.



2. 
NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF PRICING OF EUROPEAN CALL OPTION WITH STOCHASTIC VOLATILITY 
by Freddy H. Marín Sánchez & Manuela Bastidas Olivares

Abstract 
We propose a transformation that allows to build an explicit finite difference scheme
for option pricing in stochastic volatility models. The scheme is second order in
space and first order in time. We present conditions of positivity and monotonicity
of the scheme. To test conditional stability results in the sense of von Neumann
performing a Fourier analysis of the problem and follows the convergence of our
scheme. We present some numerical experimental results for European call option
pricing.



3. 
CREATING A DISRUPTIVE GAP IN INTEGRATED CIRCUIT MANUFACTURING THROUGH SUPPORTIVE R&D ACTIVITIES 
by PaoLong Chang, ChaoJung Chang, YingChyi Chou & ChingHua Lu 
Abstract 
The concept of supportive R&D activities is derived from
major R&D activities, which would help semiconductor manufacturers to launch
the revision and development of process equipment and achieve the ultimate benefit
for solving problems with process interface. This study provides a discussion on
implementation and processes of supported R&D activities, followed by a case
description and ways to accelerate or improve the semiconductor process.



4. 
THE ROLE OF CHARGE ORDERING IN GALVANOMAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF THE LAYERED CRYSTALS 
by Peter V. Gorskyi 
Abstract 
The overwhelming
majority of theoretic and experimental works are devoted to physical characteristics
of layered crystals with highly open Fermi surfaces (FS). Thus the majority of researchers
believe that the layered structure of the crystal does not manifest itself if the
FS is closed. In present work it has been shown that effects of layered structure
in charge ordered crystals manifest themselves in galvanomagnetic phenomena not
only for open FS, but for closed one. For this purpose the calculation of the longitudinal
conductivity of the layered crystal is performed for two models of relaxation time:
constant relaxation time and relaxation time proportional to the longitudinal velocity
of the charge carriers. The role of topological transition from open FS to closed
one in quantizing magnetic field is considered. The charge ordering in the longitudinal
conductivity of the layered crystals in quantizing magnetic field manifests itself
in the arise of new frequencies of the ShubnikovdeHaas (SdH) oscillations, growth
of the comparative contribution of the SdH oscillations into total longitudinal
conductivity and the decrease of the total conductivity of the chargeordered layered
crystal in comparison with the disordered layered crystal. In both cases namely
for chargeordered and disordered layered crystals effects of layered structure
manifest themselves in local maximum of the longitudinal conductivity for closed
FS.



5. 
ON THE BASIC QUALITATIVE ASPECTS OF ARITHMETIC 
by Jorge CarreraBolaños 
Abstract 
In a world
of computing, the question of the limits of computability takes grear importance
and there have been a lot of attention to it. But no attention has been given to
the theoretical origins of calculating. In this paper it is shown that there can
be an Arithmetic (even if very restricted) without a calculating structure (the
semigroup structure given by addition). This is done showing that there is a semantically
closed proper subset of Peano’s axiom system that does not include addition but
even so gives rise to what can be called a prearithmetical structure in the set
of natural numbers. That means that the set of axioms defining the successor function
builds a semantic entity independent of the axioms for addition; this concept is
defined. Even if this is not a historical analysis, this situation implies that
“counting” can be defined independent of “adding”. This discussion allows some interesting
speculations concerning the possibility that human beings began “counting” as a
qualitative process.



6. 
A BEAM ANALOGY PROCEDURE FOR STRENGTH OF INTERIOR SLABCOLUMN CONNECTIONS OF UNBONDED POSTTENSIONED FLAT PLATES  PART B: COMPARISON WITH TEST RESULTS 
by Shodolapo Oluyemi Franklin & Solomon Olukunle Ajayi 
Abstract 
In
an earlier study the authors proposed a beam analogy procedure to assess the unbalanced
bending moment strength of unbonded posttensioned interior slabcolumn connections
without shear reinforcement. In the present investigation the proposed approach
is applied to a number of test results on posttensioned slab connections reported
in the literature. It is found that for connections subjected to pure shear or gravity
loading, good predictions of the punching capacity are obtained; the mean value
of test to calculated punching capacity is 0.98 with a standard deviation of 0.17.
For the case of the relatively few slabcolumn connections subjected to shear and
unbalanced moment loading, the predictions are quite conservative in most cases.
The mean value of test to calculated unbalanced moment strength is 1.09, however
a higher standard deviation of 0.39 is obtained. It is concluded that more realistic
tests on posttensioned slabcolumn connections are needed in order to verify the
general applicability of the beam analogy approach. In addition it is suggested
that the method should be refined to account for the influence of cracking on the
torsionshear interaction, in order to yield more consistent results.



7. 
ESTIMATION OF AIRFUEL RATIO (AFR) IN A SPARKIGNITION (SI) ENGINE FROM CYLINDER PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS 
by Raghuram Pradhan, P. Ramkumar & Sukumar Suhan 
Abstract 
This develops
a method to estimate the Air/Fuel Ratio in a SparkIgnition Engine from Cylinder
Pressure Measurements. The method is developed from a well established empirical
model for the dependence of laminar flame speed on temperature, pressure and airfuel
ratio and relates this model to the heat release rate during the rapid burn phase,
which is obtained from the cylinder pressure, based net heat release profile. The
net heat release profile is computed from the cylinder pressure trace and quantifies
the conversion of chemical energy of the reactants in the charge into thermal energy.
The net heat release profile does not take heat or mass transfer into account.
Cycleaveraged air/fuel ratio estimates over a range of engine speeds and loads
show an RMS error of 4.1% compared to measurements in the exhaust.



8. 
EFFECTIVENESS FACTOR FOR POROUS CATALYSTS WITH SPECIFIC EXOTHERMIC AND ENDOTHERMIC REACTIONS UNDER LANGMUIRHINSHELWOOD KINETICS 
by Gabriel Ateiza Adagiri, Gutti Babagana & Alfred Akpoveta Susu 
Abstract 
The effectiveness factors of nonisothermal specific reactions
of LangmuirHinshelwood expressions of real reacting systems were modeled through
the specification of concentration and temperature profiles in the spherical catalyst
pellet. The data obtained from Windes et al.
[13] on the oxidation of formaldehyde over ironoxide/molybdenumoxide catalyst
was used for the exothermic reaction, while vinyl acetate synthesis from the reaction
of acetylene and acetic acid over palladium on alumina, as presented by Valstar
et al. [14] was used for the endothermic
reaction. The developed models were solved using orthogonal collocation numerical
technique with third order semiimplicit RungeKutta method through FORTRAN programming.
The results of the simulation of the experimental conditions for the exothermic
reaction showed clearly that the effectiveness factor was at no point higher than
unity, the same hold true for the endothermic reaction. However, as the temperature
is reduced in the modeling effort, the exothermic effectiveness factors indicated
an increasing maximum, as high as 98 for a Thiele modulus of about 0.06 where the
reaction is diffusion free. This could be attributed to the opposing effects of
the temperature and concentration profiles for the exothermic reaction where the
concentration profile increased with increasing radius and the temperature profile
showed the opposite effect.




9. 
QUALITY EVALUATION OF NOODLES PRODUCED FROM UNRIPE PLANTAIN FLOUR USING XANTHAN GUM 
byOjure M.A & Quadri J.A 
Abstract 
This study was
conducted in Ogun State, Nigeria to evaluate the quality of
noodles produced from unripe plantain flour using xanthan gum. About 25kg of unripe (green) plantain (Musa
paradisiacal normalis) variety was obtained. The fruits chosen were of grade
1 maturity stage (unripe) and with acceptable appearance for consumption and Xanthan
gum were purchased from Chemicals’ market. Plantain noodles have ash content (2.40%),
moisture content (8.20%), fat content (1.72%), crude fibre (1.62%), carbohydrate
content (88.20%), protein content (3.60%), energy value of 345.2 kJ/g and Ph to
be 5.8. Mean cooking time for PN3 was 7.62minutes, while that of PN2 is 7.10minutes,
PN1 was cooked for 5.10minutes and PNO for 4.5minutes but the branded commercial
noodles were cooked for 8.21 and 8.29minutes. Percentage cooking losses for the
noodles were 6.60, 7.60, 8.40, 10.40, 6.52 and 6.39 for PN3(Plantain flour with
3.5xantham gum), PN2(Plantain flour with 2.5xantham gum), PN1(Plantain flour with
1.5xantham gum), PN0(Plantain flour without xantham gum), BN1(branded noodles 1)
and BN2(branded noodles 2) respectively. PN3, PN2, PN1, PN0, BN1 and BN2 had 124.20,
115.25, 113.50, 105.50, 112.58, 111.30 rate of water absorption respectively. There
was significant difference (p<0.05) in the colour, starchy mouth coating, stickiness,
firmness and smoothness of the cooked samples of noodles. In colour, both branded
noodles 1 and 2 were found to have light yellow colour while noodles produced from
plantain flour with or without xanthan gum (PNO) had the least colour grey (1.2).
In terms of smoothness, the range was 1.54.2 but PN3 was found to be very smooth.
The range of firmness values was (2.24.1) and PN3 was adjudged to be very firm
among the noodle samples from plantain flour. The range of values for stickiness
was (1.44.3), also PN3 was found not to be as sticky as other noodle samples produced
from plantain flour. The range of values for starchy mouth feel was (1.64.2), moreover,
PN3 was found to have the least starch mouth feel. The result showed that there
was no significant difference (p>0.05) in all the sensory attributes (appearance,
flavour, taste, texture and colour) examined among the noodles produced from plantain
flours but significant difference (p<0.05) existed between the plantain noodle
samples and the commercial branded noodles. The range of mean scores for taste was
(1.04.7), flavour (1.54.6), texture (2.04.4), colour (1.24.2) and acceptability
(2.04.6). It can therefore be concluded
that plantain noodles using 3.5% of xantham gum stand a good product at the end
if other products can be incorporated (wheat, soya bean etc), so that attributes
like flavor and taste will not only be improved but the product also will be nutritionally
balanced.



10. 
A MODIFICATION IN PLITT´S FOR HYDROCYCLONES SIMULATION 
by André Carlos Silva, Elenice Maria Schons Silva & Jainer Diogo Vieira Matos 
Abstract 
Hydrocyclones are devices worldwide used in mineral processing and used for desliming,
classification, selective classification, thickening and preconcentration. Versatile
in application, the hydrocyclone is the standard classifier used in closed circuit
milling in mineral processing plants. A hydrocyclone is composed by a cylindrical
and a conical section joint together, without any moving parts and it is capable
of perform granular material separation in pulp. The pulp is feed under pressure
tangentially to the cylindrical section. The granular separation mechanism is complex
and its mathematical modelling is empirical. The most used model for hydrocyclone
dimensioning was proposed by Plitt (1976). Combining the first industrial database
on cyclones generated at JKMRC with his own laboratory data, Plitt developed an
alternative general purpose cyclone model. Over the years many revisions and corrections
to Plitt´s model were proposed. The present paper shows a modification in the Plitt´s
model constant, obtained by exponential regression of simulated data for three different
hydrocyclones geometries (Rietema, Bradley and Krebs). The proposed model validation
used literature data obtained from phosphate ore using fifteen different hydrocyclones
geometries. The proposed model shows a correlation equals to 88.2% between experimental
and calculated corrected cut size, while the correlation obtained using Plitt´s
model was 11.5%.



11. 
AN OVERVIEW ON THE BOXPIERCE PORTMANTEAU TEST

by Dakhmouche Meghlaoui & Dakhmouche Farida Rosa 
Abstract 
The computation of the power of the portmanteau test and
of its derivatives is not easy to perform because the distributions of the residuals
are not available under the
alternative hypothesis. In order to quantify the effectiveness of this test, some
specialists propose the computation of the expectation and of the variance of the
statistic used. But this approach is not sufficient enough to have a clear idea
about the power of the test. Therefore, the effectiveness of the portmanteau test
and of its derivatives remains an unsolved problem. In this contribution, we propose
to use the approximation of ToeplitzSzegö of the likelihood of a process and to
extend it to hypotheses testing problems. Thereby, we have attempted to resume some
contributions on the continuous case that we have tried to innovate with the introduction
of the ToeplitzSzegö approximation. If we can determine the NeymanPearson test
in exponential situations, then this test will be equivalent to the conventional
tests such as the portmanteau test. Our main aim is to implement a definite form
of Szegö’s theorem to obtain some approximation of the WienerHopf equations which
are easy to handle in the continuous case, and to extend the results of Dzaparidze
and Pisarenko to this case.



12. 
QUASIAROMATIC NATURE OF THE TAUTOMERIC UNITS OF SOME MALEIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMERS 
by A.G. Filimoshkin, A.S. Kuchevskaya & O. Kh. Poleshchuk 
Abstract 
As a result of simultaneous joint transformations of
repeating succinic anhydride (an)
and adjacent vinyl chloride (or vinyl acetate) units the tautomeric
enol
(еn) and dienol (den)
derivatives having quasiaromatic character are formed. The
еn and den units include highenergy
ensembles
С–О–Н∙∙∙Cl (or
С–О–Н∙∙∙O) which take part in the cooperative interactions
with nucleophilic reagents such as dimethyl formamide, NaNO_{2}, NaN_{3}
and others. Experimental assessment of the structure and reactivity of tautomeric
units (IR, electron, ^{1}Н
and ^{13}С NMR spectroscopy)
is found to be consistent with the results of quantumchemical
(GAUSSIAN, B3LYP/631G(d); ADF, BP86/TZ2P) calculations. High energy transition
state ensembles [^{d}^{+}С–О–Н∙∙∙Cl]^{#
}(or [^{d}^{+}С–О–Н∙∙∙O]^{#})
appear to be the reaction
centers of their interactions with DMF, NaNO_{2}, NaN_{3} while
reactions with the cyclic ethers (tetrahydrofuran, 1,4 dioxane) proceed
via oxonium compounds.



13. 
EFFECT OF BATCHING METHODS ON THE FRESH AND HARDENED PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 
by Kolapo O. Olusola, Adewumi J. Babafemi, Akaninyene A. Umoh & Babatunde J. Olawuyi 
Abstract 
This paper investigated
the effect of batching by mass and volume on concrete’s compressive strength and
workability. Influence of mix proportion at five levels and various watercement
ratios were also studied. All samples were cured by complete immersion in water
and tested up to 28 days. The results indicated higher workabilities for concrete
batched by mass than concrete batched by volume at all w/c ratios and mix proportions
investigated. The workability increased with increase in w/c ratios in both methods.
The compressive strength results showed that for rich structural mixes (1:1:2 and
1:1.5:3), concrete batched by mass had 20 % and 6 % strength increases respectively
over the concrete batched by volume. Ordinary structural mix (1:2:4) had 14 % increase
while nonstructural mixes (1:3:6 and 1:4:8) had 8 % and 6 % increases respectively.
In all cases, concrete batched by mass had better fresh and hardened properties
of concrete.



14. 
A NEW APPROACH ON SLOPE DATA ACQUISITION USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE 
by Khairul Nizam Tahar 
Abstract 
This study proposes
a generic approach for photogrammetric survey using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).
UAV is one of the powerful equipment that can be used to obtain the earth surface
images from certain altitude. UAV can provide a high quality data for GIS analysis.
In this study, two persons are needed; UAV operator and ground crew station. A complete
set of fixed wing UAV with autonomous flight was used to capture image from certain
altitude at the study area.UAV operator is responsible to operate UAV during flight
mission especially during launching and landing while ground crew station is responsible
to monitor UAV attitude during flight mission. All acquired images were processed
using photogrammetric software which applied all photogrammetric stages. Two primary
results were produced such as digital elevation model and digital orthophoto. Digital
elevation model and digital orthophoto was generated after the aerial triangulation
process based on tie point measurement and ground control points.
In this study, we have generated three dimensional model based on the UAV images.
It was found that, UAV images were able to provide an accurate three dimensional
model for GIS presentation. This study has successfully represented the
result for GIS data using UAV images. UAV can be used as one of GIS data source
in the future.



15. 
THE PHOTO – THERMAL THE UNIFIED THEORY OF COHERENT PHENOMENON OF ELECTRICITY AND HEAT 
by Besnik Duriqi & Armend Salihu 
Abstract 
In this paper we will explain
the coherent phenomenon of electricity and heat in the bodies. We will try to explain
step by step what causes electricity and what causes heat in any body (metallic)
radiated by light. Based on the law of conversation of energy, we will try to explain
how the energy of any source of light gets transformed.



16. 
STUDY THE BEHAVIOR OF THE SOLUTION AND ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIORS OF EIGENVALUES OF A SIX ORDER BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM 
by Karwan H.F. Jwamer & Aryan Ali. M. 
Abstract 
In this paper
we study the behavior of the solution and asymptotic behavior of eigenvalues of
a six order boundary value problem



17. 
BIANCHI TYPE I DUST FILLED UNIVERSE WITH DECAYING VACUUM ENERGY IN CFIELD COSMOLOGY 
by Raj Bali & Seema Saraf 
Abstract 
Bianchi Type I dust filled universe (p = 0) with time
dependent vacuum energy density (L) in the
presence of creation field (Cfield) is investigated.



18. 
NEW TECHNIQUE TO DEAL WITH DYNAMIC DATA MINING IN THE DATABASE 
by Hebah H.O. Nasereddin 
Abstract 
Data mining is a part of a process called KDDKnowledge Discovery in Databases.
This process consists basically of steps that are performed before carrying out
data mining, such as data selection, data cleaning, preprocessing, and data transformation
[1, 2]. There may be thousands or millions of records that have to be read and to
extract the rules for, but the question is what will happen if there is new data,
or there is a need to modify or delete some or all the existing set of data during
the process of data mining. Also realworld databases are highly susceptible to
noise, missing, and inconsistent data due to their typically huge size, often several
gigabytes or more. The questions here are; how can the data be preprocessed in order
to help improve the quality of the data, and consequently the mining results? How
can the new updated data be preprocessed in order to help improve the quality of
the data, efficiency, and simplify of the mining process? Therefore the purpose
of this study is to find solutions (Itemsummation) for dynamic data mining process
that is able to take into considerations all updates (insert, update, and delete
problems) into account.


