Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
Journal of Pharmacy and clinical Sciences
ISSN: 2222-761X, EISSN: 2222-7903

Volume 9(January, 2016)

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1. IMPACT OF DABIGATRAN AND RIVAROXABAN ON THE PROPORTION OF HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS WITH NONVALVULAR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION (NVAF) PRESCRIBVED AN ANTICOAGULANT FOR THE PREVENTION OF STROKE AND SYSTEMIC EMBOLISM, 2009-2012

by Yvonne L. Phan, Toni L. Ripley, Holly R. Herring, Donald Harrison & R. Chris Rathbun

Abstract

Study Objective: Approximately 40% of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) remain without preventive anticoagulation therapy. With the availability of new and more convenient oral anticoagulants, this study was conducted to assess the proportions of hospitalized patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) prescribed anticoagulation on discharge during a one year time before and after FDA approval of dabigatran and rivaroxaban.

Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the frequency of oral anticoagulation in hospitalized patients with NVAF. Non-pregnant, adult patients with an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification Code of 427.31 with CHADS2 > 1 discharged between 7-2009 and 6-2010 (before approval of the new oral anticoagulants) and between 7-2011 and 6-2012 (after drug approval) were eligible for inclusion. Patients’ demographics, comorbidities, oral anticoagulant drug and dose, concomitant medications at discharge, laboratory data, and contraindications to anticoagulation regimen were documented.

Results: A total of 1,629 charts were identified in the first timeframe (2009-2010) and 1,957 charts in the second timeframe (2011-2012). Five hundred twenty-nine charts were screened; 362 were excluded (incomplete charts, duplicate patients, or CHADS2 = 0), leaving 83 and 84 patients eligible for analysis in 2009-2010 and 2011-2012, respectively. No significant difference was detected between proportions of patients discharged on an anticoagulant during the two time periods (59% for 2009-2010 versus 53.5% for 2011-2012, p = NS). At least one relative contraindication (e.g., past history of bleeding events or falls) was documented for 38.6% and 30% (p = 0.14) of the patients, respectively.

Conclusion: New and more convenient options did not appear to improve the proportion of hospitalized patients prescribed anticoagulation for stroke prevention in NVAF. Further exploration of barriers to anticoagulation therapy for stroke prevention in NVAF is needed.

2. ANTI-PLASMODIAL ACTIVITY OF THE AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF THE FRUITING BODIES OF Lentinus submidus
by Samuel Ede, Ozougwu Obiora Ozoagu, Olaniyan Donald Oladayo, Emmanuel Anebi, John Chinyere Aguiyi, Folashade Rebecca Ede & Ekwere Okon Ekwere
Abstract

Malaria remains a public health challenge in developing countries including Nigeria. Statistics show that malaria was responsible for 500,000 deaths in 2013 out of over 50 million reported cases [1] and 6 out of 10 hospital admissions in the same year [2]. The development of resistance by plasmodia parasites to efficacious medicines is a major threat to the success of diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Resistance to artemisinin has been reported in the Thai-Cambodian border, a notorious starting point of resistance to anti-malarial drugs over the decades [3]. It is imperative that the search for novel molecular skeletons, from which possible new leads can be developed, continues in order to provide alternative safe and effective medicines for the treatment of malaria. Mitigation measures must be directed at vector control and chemotherapy, among others. The human host bears the direct consequence of malaria infection and successful chemotherapy removes the reservoir from which infective plasmodia parasites can be derived.

Basidiomycetes are macrofungi (mushrooms) and in Nigeria, interest in them is limited to their nutritional benefits, with little or no emphasis on their medicinal properties. However, literature reveals a plethora of beneficial properties attributable to mushrooms, especially in the Orient. Their anti-oxidant, anti-neoplastic, antimicrobial, hypotensive, anti-diabetic and hypo-lipidaemic properties have been reported [4].

This study was carried out to investigate the anti-plasmodial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of the basidiomycetes Lentinus submidus in murine models.













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