Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
Journal of Pharmacy and clinical Sciences
ISSN: 2222-761X, EISSN: 2222-7903

Volume 8(January-March, 2014)

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1. EFFECT OF “UDU”, AN ANTIMALARIAL HERBAL PREPARATION ON VISCERAL ORGAN WEIGHT AND BLOOD LIPID PROFILES IN WISTAR RATS

by Duru Majesty, Amadi Benjamin, Ugbogu Amadike & Eze Adindu

Abstract

Effect of “udu”, an antimalarial herbal preparation popular in Umunchi community Isiala Mbano L.G.A of Imo State, Nigeria on visceral organ weight and blood lipid profiles was carried out using standard methods. Forty male wistar albino rats separated into five groups of eight rats each were used. One group served as the control while the other groups were given different doses of the herbal preparation. Results obtained revealed that “udu” had insignificant (p>0.05) effect on visceral organ weight and relative organ weight in test rats when compared to those of the control rats. Some blood lipid profile indices were affected significantly (p<0.05) in test rats against the control. This study has revealed the effect of “udu”, an antimalarial herbal preparation on visceral organ weight and blood lipid profiles in wistar rats.


2. BLEACHED PALM OIL AS SUBSTITUTE FOR XYLENE IN HISTOLOGY
by Mfoniso Udonkang, Mokutima Eluwa, Theresa B. Ekanem, Olaitan R. Asuquo & Amabe O. Akpantah
Abstract

Objectives: These is to determine whether tissues cleared and dewaxed with bleached palm oil at 60OCare same with the xylene-produced counterparts in respect of transparency, production of serial sections and quality of histological staining as well as determine whether bleached palm oil is a cheaper and health and environmental safer substitute for xylene.

Materials and Methods: Fifteen sets of tissues removed from a bird were divided into 2 experimental groups (n=15) labeled A and B. Group A tissues were processed with xylene as clearing agent and dewaxing agent in routine paraffin wax method while Group B tissues were processed with bleached palm oil at 60ºC as clearing and dewaxing  agent. Sections in both groups were stained using Cole Haematoxylin and Eosin Staining Method.

Results: The results showed minor differences between the tissues cleared and dewaxed in bleached palm oil at 60OC and the xylene counterparts in terms of transparency, production of serial sections and quality of histological staining. The differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Thus, bleached palm oil-processed tissues were as good as the xylene-processed tissues and can conveniently be a safe, economical, and locally produced substitute for xylene.

3. EVALUATION OF THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING OF CYCLOSPORINE AND TACROLIMUS IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANT PATIENTS
by Khaled M. Alakhali, Manal Selim & Mohamed A. Hammad
Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic monitoring process of cyclosporine and tacrolimus in kidney transplant patients and its effect on optimizing therapy.

Materials and method:A retrospective cross sectional design was adopted and data collected from 150 records of patients who underwent kidney transplantation and receiving immunosuppressant treatment (cyclosporine or tacrolimus) in the first six months after kidney transplantation.

Results:The results showed that 66% of patients who treated with cyclosporine or tacrolimus achieved the desired therapeutic range, compared to 18% with sub-therapeutic levels and 16% with toxic levels.

Conclusion:The study confirmed the importance of individual monitoring of cyclosporine and tacrolimus serum concentrations and its relationship to therapeutic outcomes in renal transplant patients.

4. A SURVEY OF THE STATUS OF MALARIA IN GUYANA AND TREATMENTS: SYNTHETIC AND HERBAL

by Jagessar R.C. & Rampersaud. E.

Abstract

Malaria is an infectious disease characterized by recurring attacks of chills and fever, induced by the bite of an anopheles mosquito, infected with any of four protozoans of the genus  Plasmodium: P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. malariae, or P. ovale). In Guyana and  Worldwide, Malaria is a leading cause of infection deaths induced by vectors. It affects both the young and old, and if not taken seriously, it can prove fatal. According to the World Malaria Report 2011, by the World Health Organization (WHO), ‘there were 216 million cases of malaria and an estimated 655 000 deaths in 2010. Malaria mortality rates have fallen by more than 25%  globally, since 2000  and  by 33%  in the WHO African Region. In Guyana, within the eleven year period from  2000 to 2010, the numbers of new cases of Malaria reported  has shown variation with a general decrease. From the period 2000 to 2005, a general increase is noted with a maximum value of  38, 984 in 2005 from an initial value of  24,018 in 2000. A general decrease was noted from 2005 to 2010 with the number of persons infected in 2010 being 22, 935.  The lowest number of  11,657 was observed in 2007. These values are significant and thus appropriate Health Standard Protocols should be followed in Guyana to curb Malaria. Both synthetic and herbal treatments are used to treat Malaria in Guyana and Globally.


5. APPLICATION OF AGRO-WASTE PRODUCTS AS ORGANIC AND VALUE ADDED BIOFERTILIZER FOR IMPROVING PLANT GROWTH

by Saima Ibrahim & Erum Mumtaz

Abstract

Biofertilizer enhance organic materials availability to plant more than an ordinary organic fertilizer. This in an environmentally friendly biotechnological approach also offers as an alternative to hazardous chemical fertilizers. An experiment was carried out in the experimental field of the department of Botany, JUW, Karachi to investigate the potential of different agro-waste residues as raw organic fertilizer and microbial composted biofertilizer with reference to the growth and nutritional status of green gram. These agro-waste products viz, Wheat Bran, Mustard Oil Cake, Cicer Brown Husk, Peanut Shell, Tea Waste and FYM were composted with Aspergillus niger to form biodegradable value added product (biofertilizer). Two levels of fertilizer viz. Uncomposted raw organic fertilizer and composted biofertilizer (Set-1 & Set-2) were used as experimental variables and applied @10ton/ ha as a treatment to each pot and then examined their effects on growth and biochemical parameters of study crop. The observed data revealed that a significant increase in plant root and shoot length, fresh and dry mass of mung bean (Vigna radiate.L) were observed due to PSF composted biofertilizer inoculation. This can also be attributed to the increased uptake of nutrients in the plants leading to increase in carbohydrate and protein synthesis. All the parameters performed better with agro-waste as PSF-composted biofertilizer as compared to organic fertilizer form.  













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