Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 8, Issue 1 (July, 2011)

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1. DARK MATTER AND VARIABLE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT
by R.K. Mishra & Amritbir Singh
Abstract

In this paper we have investigated the astronomical evidences for Dark Matter which come from the wide variety of astrophysical measurements, its detection, along with study of Dark Matter candidates and importance of Robertson-Walker geometry.


2. EFFECTS OF TEMPORAL RESOLUTION ON RIVER FLOW FORECASTING WITH SIMPLE INTERCEPTION MODEL WITHIN A DISTRIBUTED HYDROLOGICAL MODEL

by Azinoor Azida ABU BAKAR & Minjiao LU

Abstract

The effect of temporal resolution of hydrological data on the rainfall-runoff simulation is presented in this paper. The interception phenomenon is normally considered as one of the losses in hydrological cycle that comes into intention of many hydrologists for several decades. Distributed hydrological model developed by Lu et al, 1989 [1] with a simple interception model was implemented. The rainfall-runoff simulation is carried out at Doki River basin, Kagawa Prefecture, Japan. The river basin area is 106.8 km2 where most of the basin area is covered by the forest and the influences of human activities are very limited. Interception is considered as an important hydrological process in simulating the rainfall-runoff hydrograph for this basin. Rainfall data with a different temporal resolution ranging from one hour to twenty four hours are processed as the input and the model shows the different responses to each of the hydrological data with different temporal resolution.


3. A REVIEW ON HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH PROLONGED STANDING IN THE INDUSTRIAL WORKPLACES
by Isa Halim & Abdul Rahman Omar
Abstract

In industrial workplaces, many workers perform processes jobs in standing position for a long period of time. Working in standing position can be linked to versatility because the mobility of legs position and having large degree of freedom. This working position promotes workers to be more efficient and productive. Such advantages contribute high value for company profits; however, standing in a long period of time can lead to discomfort, muscle fatigue, and occupational injuries to workers. The purpose of this paper is to disseminate information on health effects, assessment methods, and control measures associated with prolonged standing jobs in industrial workplaces. Published articles related to standing in workplace have been reviewed. Based on published researches, work-related musculoskeletal disorders, chronic venous insufficiency, preterm birth and spontaneous abortion, and carotid atherosclerosis have been identified as common health problems associated with prolonged standing. Engineering and administrative controls have been proposed to the workplace to minimize the health problems.


4. MODIFICATION OF THERMOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYESTERS BY INCREASING CHAIN RIGIDITY
by Malabika Talukdar
Abstract

Polymers with long spacers often exhibit very low range of mesophase stability. The mesophase region must be wider enough in order to utilize their anisotropic nature during processing. For this purpose, the linking group, ie. the ester linkage, has been slightly modified by introducing a small fraction of additional amide linkage. By varying the amount of esteramide linkage in the polymer chainthe range of mesophase stability has been found  to alter.Quantitative structure analysis of the polymers, have been carried out by FTIR spectroscopy. WAXD technique was used to understand the crystalline structure of the polymers. Liquid crystalline texture of the polymers wasestablished by the photomicrographs obtained from a polarizing microscope fitted with a hot stage. Thermal behavior and transition processes were investigated by TGA, DSC and a combination of DSC and optical microscopy.


5. ANALYSIS OF CRACK IN SHAFT OF BLOWER USING FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE
by P.R. Baviskar & V.B. Tungikar
Abstract

This paper addresses the inverse method of fault detection in moving parts. One of the failures might be due to the crack initiation and propagation in any of the moving part. Being susceptible to minute changes, the natural frequency is monitored to access crack location and crack size in beam. The study is based on observation of changes in natural frequency. In theoretical analysis, the crack is simulated by a spring connecting the two segments of the beam. The model of beam is generated using Finite Element Method of analysis. In Finite Element Analysis, the natural frequency of beam is calculated by Modal Analysis using the software ANSYSTM whereas for experimentation purpose, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Analyzer is used. After validating the software, Finite Element Analysis of cracked blower shaft is conducted. The results obtained by Finite Element Analysis & experimentation are in good agreement.


6. NOVEL APPLICATIONS OF MICRO ELECTRODE-BIOLOGICAL SALINE ELECTROLYTE INTERFACE AT HIGH SINUSOIDAL CURRENT DENSITY
by Jyoti Gupta, S.P.Kosta & P. Mor
Abstract

The rectifying property of micro steel electrode–saline electrolyte interface at high sinusoidal current density was reported by Leslie A Geddes et.al in 1987. In the present communication we report experimental results of rectifying property of a micro copper electrode-biological saline electrolyte interface at high AC current density at different frequencies. We observe that remarkable rectification is obtained at 50 Hz input signal. The observation suggests that all biological cells, which are in the order of 10 um in dimension, and contain cytoplasm fluid (electrolyte) when exposed to Electromagnetic Waves of varied frequencies, may produce nano DC currents.

We also present a realization of basic digital gate, OR Logic gate, using above micro electrode- electrolyte interface device, which is aptly named as HCDED (High Current Density Electrolytic Diode). The three input OR-Gate circuit is plugged and tested at 50 Hz input signal.

Another application involves developing an Alternate DC micro-watt Power Source. Theoretical considerations of designing a power source from tuning the ambient 900 Mhz microwave signals present in atmosphere into the copper electrode-biological saline electrolyte rectifier followed by a low pass filter, are presented. It is proposed that such micro-watt power source is practically realizable by nanotechnology.

7. ANALYSIS OF COOLING DEGREE DAYS FOR TIRUCHIRAPPALLI – A DISTRICT IN INDIA
by S. Shanmuga Priya, M.Premalatha, S.R. Rajkumar & I. Thirunavukkarasu
Abstract

In India the performance of buildings may take a greater significance in near future with the constraint of limited resource availability, domestic and international targets for the reduction of green house gas emissions. For India, annual cooling degree days are 3120 and annual heating degree days are 80. In this study, cooling degree days for Tiruchirappalli, a location in south part of India is found using the long-term recent measured data by British gas method. Cooling degree days are calculated for eleven base temperatures ranging from 18°C to 28°C  and are tabulated. Annual cooling degree days is related with base temperature for Tiruchirappalli with the correlation coefficient of 0.995. Also, an empirical relation between the month and monthly average cooling degree days is obtained with the correlation coefficient of 0.942. Heat loss calculations are carried out for Indian buildings as a function of annual cooling degree days for different U values of buildings. The results are compared between the best and worst U values of the buildings. The calculations are also made for heat loss for different base temperatures keeping the U value of the building constant. The results indicate that either a correction in base temperature or a better U value for the buildings will save energy up to an extent of 80% in air-conditioned Indian buildings.


8. PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE BLOCK CONTAINING RICE HUSK ASH SUBJECTED TO GIRHA
by Farah Alwani Wan Chik, Badorul Hisham Abu Bakar, Megat Azmi Megat Johari & Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya
Abstract

Concrete blocks containing rice husk ash should be promoted as a new construction material to replace the existing blocks in market. Properties of the material used must be better understood first to obtain the desired concrete block. Generally, this paper presents a laboratory study on the effect of gasses incinerating rice husk ash (GIRHA) on properties of concrete block. The compressive strength, water absorption, moisture movement and modulus of elasticity were investigated. Preliminary analysis of the constituent materials of the ordinary Portland cement and Rice Husk Ash concrete blocks were conducted to confirm their suitability for block making. Physical test of the recently prepared mix was also carried out. 390mm x 190mm x 100mm concrete blocks were cast and compacted by a KANGO hammer for 7, 14, 28 and 60 days at 0, 10, 15 and 20 percent replacement levels. In conclusion, the high performance of masonry blocks can be produced using rice husk ash (RHA) as cement replacement material. The compressive strength of the OPC and RHA concrete blocks increases with age at curing and decreases as the percentage of RHA content increases. The study arrived at an optimum replacement level of 15%.


9. QUICK GLANCE ON DIFFERENT WAVELETS AND THEIR OPERATIONAL MATRIX PROPERTIES: A REVIEW
by Nagma Irfan & S. Kapoor
Abstract

In the present work an attempt has been taken to understand the basic behind the different kind of Wavelets with their important properties, characteristic and applications, main emphasize is on the orthonormal function. The manuscript is basically divided in to seven sections. In first section we start with introduction methodology of the corresponding work and in the second section we give a glance on the basic definition of particular wavelets transform and kind of wavelet transform with approximating approach. In part third we define operational matrix, its role and importance in the above field. In fourth section we look at the Legendre Wavelets and its difference between Wavelets along with that we gives the properties of the Legendre Wavelets along with the application, its quite interesting to see their approximation also in the above work. In the section five we give a detail of CAS wavelets, its properties application and its approximation advantages with approximation detail along with that, a comparison with others also shown in brief. In the next section we move on to the Sine-cosine wavelets, its properties, summary application and there role in the particular field. Finally we conclude in the last section that how the wavelet transform is useful tool in present work.


10. SECURITY IMPROVMENTS TO THE DIFFIE-HELLMAN SCHEMES
by Malek Jakob Kakish
Abstract

The Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol and the Diffie-Hellman encryption/decryption cryptosystem are historical the firstly defined Public key cryptosystems that enables communicating parties over unsecure communication channel to agree upon a shared secret key and to encrypt /decrypt messages.  

In praxis Diffie-Hellman key agreement is very often used as part of security protocols or security standards to secure data over public and communication systems, thus the security of the Diffie-Hellman is critical because any weaknesses can lead such systems to become vulnerable against attacks.

This paper introduces a security improvement that makes the Diffie-Hellman key agreement and encryption scheme more secure against attacks, such as the known plaintext attacks, it suggests the use of randomized parameter in both schemes, this will allows to produce a new shared secret key each time a communication session is build and to generate different encryption messages for all kinds of messages even for same message, thus making the Diffie-Hellman more secure compared with the basic version of the Diffie-Hellman.

11. THE CIRCULAR MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA – DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
by B.J. Kwaha, O.N Inyang & P. Amalu
Abstract

A FORTRAN program was developed to simulate the basic parameters of a microwave circular patch antenna. These parameters are the actual radius of patch, effective radius of patch, conductance due to radiation, conductance due to conduction, conductance due to dielectric loss, directivity, input resistance and quality factors due to conduction, dielectric loss, and radiation. Alongside, these parameters were manually computed. Four substrates were selected - Galium Arsenide, Duroid, Indium Phosphide and Silicon. Deductions made from the results showed that Galium Arsenide is suitable when smaller antenna size and low power handling capability is apriori. However, when size is not a constraint, Duroid is exceptional especially in directivity and high power radiation. Patch radius decreases as the resonant frequency increases (0.2374cm at 10.0GHz and 0.05079 cm at 45.0GHz for GaAs). The results obtained in this design compare favorably with results obtained from manual computation of the same parameters and these agree with other designs such as the rectangular patch.


12. CACHE RELOCATION FOR VOD IN WIRELESS NETWORK USING MOBILE AGENT TECHNOLOGY
by Hasan Al-Sakran
Abstract

Recent advances in mobile computing and wireless technologies resulted in the emergence of new services such as Video-on-Demand. However, high rates of disconnection, low bandwidth, and other problems still strongly affect the quality of such services. To address some of these challenges, we propose a new model for the caching of video content that takes advantage of the cooperation among distributed caching proxies containing hot VoD titles in wireless base and support station caches. Our model also considers the constant movement of mobile users. Mobile agents are used to transfer cached video content from one base station to another. As the user moves from place to place, a mobile agent can bring the user specific cache video content to his device’s cache or to the base station under which the user is currently located.


13. PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF INDUCTION MACHINES: AN OVERVIEW
by Lokesh Varshney, J.S. Shakya & R.K. Saket
Abstract

This paper presents an overview on performance and reliability evaluation of induction machines. Induction Machine has been found to be very suitable for electrical to mechanical energy conversion vice versa. Induction machines have been subjected to increased demand for low cost and size, simple construction, absence of separate dc source for excitation, least maintenance, operational simplicity, brush less construction with cage rotor, easy parallel operation, no hunting, higher horsepower per frame size, higher operating temperatures, more demanding duty cycles, higher starting currents, frequent voltage transients, severe environmental exposure, long life and reliable performance. The fault modes of induction machine are very complex, so that many people are plagued to establish the fault evidences for reliability verification. The classification of the various faults of the induction machines have been discussed in this paper. The major failure modes of the machines are classified as class A, Class B and Class C modes. Reliability evaluation technique, Refusable Fault Rate (REFR), Acceptable Fault Rate (ACFR), and an overview on various types of reliability methods have been described considering various fault modes.


14. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A WEB-BASED GIS FOR PATIENTS REFERRAL TO HOSPITALS IN ZARIA METROPOLIS
by F.B Abdullahi & T.Hassan
Abstract

The aim of this Study is to design and Implement a web base GIS for Patients Referral  in Zaria Metropolis in order to reduce problems been faced by patient in case of Emergencies. The Development of this model is motivated to provide opportunity for healthcare practitioner to gain access to information that can aid him/her to locate viable hospital for patient in case of emergency. Although considerable research has been for health GIS applications, three challenges still need to be addressed, this relate to health mapping methods, Reusability of health application and interoperability issues. To handle this problem we design a web-based GIS for patient referral to support data sharing and representation. The developed model makes it possible for healthcare practitioner to locate the nearest hospital and the services rendered in case of referrals. The study explores the use of open source software, Web server is Apache extended with support for PHP, MySQL and ARCGIS 9.2 Authentication is built in the model as a security for accessing information in the database.


15. ASSESSMENT OF THE GROUND WATER QUALITY IN OGBOMOSO TOWNSHIP OF OYO STATE OF NIGERIA
by Adetunde L.A, Glover R.L.K & Oguntola G.O
Abstract

Physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of well water in the Ogbomoso North and South local government areas of Oyo State, Nigeria were investigated. Water samples were collected from 20 hand dug wells in the Ogbomoso North and 20 hand-dug wells in the Ogbomoso South local areas. The results showed that most of the physical and chemical parameters were within the acceptable guide line limits of the WHO for drinking and domestic water. The well water is mostly soft, alkalinity ranged from 30- 390mg/l and 40- 236mg/l for North and South respectively. pH ranged between 6.2- 8.8 in both areas, SO42- and CL- ions concentrations fell within WHO set  standards, CL- ranged between 17.5-400mg/l and 27.5-220mg/l and SO42- ranged between 10-120mg/l and 12-175mg/l in North and South areas respectively. Those at elevated levels may cause serious health effects and risks might arise after prolong and continuous intake. Hardness ranged between 40- 504mg/l and 60-384mg/l for North and South areas respectively. Well water in some areas is moderately hard to very hard. However, the bacteriological quality of the samples in both areas was poor rendering them unsafe for human consumption without treatment. Faecal coliforms ranged between 04        and 36 MPN/100ml in North area with a mean value of 16 MPN/100ml while it ranged between 04 and 29   MPN/100ml, with a mean value of 15.7 MPN/100ml in the South area. Total coliform ranged between 09 and 52 MPN/100ml with a mean value of 29.1 MPN/100ml in the North area while in the South area total coliform counts ranged between 11 and 47 MPN/100ml with a mean value of 26.25 MPN/100ml.Total viable bacterial counts in North area and South areas ranged between 10 and 34cfu/ml X 107and between 10 and 22cfu/ml X 107 respectively. Such microbial contamination posed a threat to well water quality and could lead to an increase risk level of outbreak of water borne diseases in the two local government areas of Oyo State.


16. MEDICINAL PLANTS AND THEIR CORRELATE USE BY THE INHABITANTS OF IKEDURU LGA OF IMO STATE NIGERIA
by Nwachukwu C.U, Ijioma B.C & Onwukwe E.O
Abstract

Over the years, man has been faced with the challenges of preventing and eliminating diseases in the body. The discovery of the efficacy of certain plant species in herbal remedies by man may have come as a result of trial and error. This however, has created some gap in common believe on the treatment of ailments among some related and unrelated human societies of the world. Phytochemical analysis on certain plant species by some modern practitioners have shown some corresponding results with already existing tradomedical information while in some cases have differed completely thereby causing doubt in herbal treatment. This research was conducted in Ikeduru Local Government Area of Imo State to determine the level of such discrepancy. The result shows that only (27.8%) responses of the studied population correlated with the already existing herbal information while (72.2%) disagreed. Therefore, this research is a new frontier to the inhabitants of Ikeduru L.G.A in particular and the society at large because it gives further information ‘on the efficacy of more plant species used in herbal treatment.














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