Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 7, Issue 3 (June, 2011)

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1. EFFECT OF LUMINANCE ON NIGHT DRIVING PERFORMANCE OF YOUNGER-OLD AND OLDER-OLD ADULTS
by Maureen J. Reed & Said M. Easa
Abstract

Little research has been conducted to understand the difference in driving performance between younger-old adults (60-75 years) and older-old adults (76+ years), or simply younger olds and older olds. The main objective of this study was to determine if a minimal increase in road light level (luminance) differently affects the performance of these two distinct age groups. Older adults were tested in a driving simulator following vision and cognitive screening. Comparisons were made for the performance of simulated night driving of the two age groups under two road light conditions (0.6 cd/m2 and 2.5 cd/m2). At each light level, the effects of participant age were examined along with the vision/cognitive performance. It was found that increasing road light level from 0.6 cd/m2 to 2.5 cd/m2 resulted in different effects on night driving performance depending on the age of the participant. It is concluded that while increasing road lighting may be helpful to some older adults, younger and older olds vary in terms of cognition, attention, and confidence and these factors need to be considered in road lighting design.


2. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF MARINE SALTS IN COASTAL REGION USING WET CANDLE SENSORS

by Khandaker M. A. Hossain & Said M. Easa

Abstract

The results of a study to evaluate the spatial distribution of marine salts from sea spray in relation to the distance from the sea are presented. The study monitored the deposition rate of chlorides and sulfates from sea spray in wet candle sensors, located at twelve sampling stations scattered around the metropolitan region of the port city of Chittagong in Bangladesh which is situated on the coastline of the Bay of Bengal. The type and amount of salts captured in the solution from the wet candle sensors were determined by ion chromatography. The data collected showed that the marine salt deposition is significant up to a distance of about 200 m from the seashore. From this point onward, the amount of chlorides drops sharply and in the case of sulfates, other emission sources become more critical than the sea spray. Relationships between the concentration of marine salts and the distance from the sea are established. The results of this study can be used to evaluate the potential aggression of salt deposition on marine systems, and as such should be useful in infrastructure planning and management.


3. FLOW AND CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIRAL PIPE FOR NANOFLUIDS
by Yanuar, N. Putra, Gunawan & M. Baqi
Abstract

This paper presents an experimental investigation of convective heat transfer coefficient for nanofluids using spiral pipe heat exchanger. The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally flow and convective heat transfer characteristics of water-based nanofluids flowing through a spiral pipe. The test section consist of spiral pipe with ratio pitch per diameter is 7.0 and mean hydraulic diameter of  30 mm. The straight spiral tube with 1600 mm length is used as the test section. At the inner of spiral pipe installed a circular copper pipe with  10 mm diameter. Measurements of pressure drop and convective heat transfer are carried out for Al2O3, TiO2 and CuO at 1% and 3%, particle volume with pure water.  The convective heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluids increases by up to 28% at a concentration of  3 vol. % compared with that of pure water.  


4. MODIFICATIONS TO MURTY’S METHOD FOR LINEAR PROGRAMMING USING ELLIPSOIDAL TECHNIQUE WITH SLIDING OBJECTIVE
by Abdel-Karim S. O. Hassan & Hesham O. M. Ali
Abstract

In this paper significant modifications to the method proposed by Murty in 2006 for solving LP are introduced. Each iteration in Murty’s method consists of two steps ; a centering step and a descent step. The centering step is a corrector step that tries to move a current interior feasible solution into the center of the feasible region without sacrificing the objective quality. This center is considered as the center of the largest hypersphere that can be inscribed in the polytopic feasible region. The centering step is accomplished using two centering phases. The second step is a predictor step that results in a strict decrease in objective value. A modification is done to that procedure by combining the foregoing two centering phases through adding  an extra constraint parallel to the objective function to the polytopic feasible region. Then, the center of the modified polytopic feasible region is obtained by finding the center of the largest hyperellipsoid inscribed inside it using an ellipsoidal method. A descent step is then done to get a better solution.


5. EVALUATION OF SOME RELIABILITY PARAMETERS FOR A GAS SEPARATOR PLANT BY BOOLEAN FUNCTION TECHNIQUE
by S.C Agarwal & Mool Pal
Abstract

The authors in this paper have tried to evaluate the reliability and MTTF of a gas separator plant. The considered system consist of four sub system arranged in series and parallel configuration .Boolean function technique have been used to formulate and solve the mathematical model of considered system .All necessary graphical illustrations are given at the end so as to explain the practical utility of the model.


6. ABSOLUTE BANACH SUMMABILITY OF A FACTORED FOURIER SERIES
by S.K Paikray, U.K. Misra & N.C. Sahoo
Abstract

A theorem on Banach summability has been proved in this paper.


7. THE SEMI NORMED SPACE DEFINED BY ORLICZ SPACE OF ENTIRE SEQUENCE
by U.K.Misra, M.Misra, N.Subramanian & P.Samanta
Abstract

In this paper we introduce the sequence spaces  using an modulus function M and defined over a semi normed space (X,q) , semi normed by q and study some properties of these sequence spaces. We also obtain some inclusion relations.


8. STRATEGIES FOR UNDERSTANDING LIGHTNING MYTHS AND BELIEFS
by E. Trengove & I.R. Jandrell
Abstract

In South Africa, lightning kills people every year. People who work outdoors are particularly vulnerable to lightning strikes. Strategies need to be developed to reduce the number of people killed or injured by lightning. Many people, however, have firm views and beliefs about lightning and any strategy to improve their safety with respect to lightning, will have to take cognisance of these beliefs. This paper looks at the strategies that engineers can follow to familiarise themselves with the lightning beliefs in rural areas in Southern Africa.


9. AN INVESTIGATION ON S.I ENGINE USING HYDROGEN AND CNG BLENDS
by Jiwak G. Suryawanshi & Pravin T. Nitnaware
Abstract

Continuously decreased in reserves of fossils fuels, foreign exchange expenditure for import of crude petroleum, the unsteadiness of their prices and the increasingly stricter exhaust emission legislation, put forward the alternative fuels as substitute for the vehicles. Much interest has been centered on CNG due to its potential for low particulate and hydrocarbon emissions. To improve low burning velocity and poor combustion stability of Natural gas fueled engine Hydrogen blending with CNG is looked upon as a good alternative fuel. The maximum mean gas temperature and maximum rate of pressure rise increased remarkably when the hydrogen volumetric fraction increase slightly. The burning velocity increases exponentially with the increase of hydrogen fraction in the fuel blends. The optimum hydrogen volumetric fraction in natural gas, is around 20 % to get the compromise in both engine performance and emissions. HCNG reduces exhaust emissions and improves combustion characteristic.

In this paper, the operating envelope, fuel economy, emissions, strategies to achieve stable combustion of HCNG engine, blending methods and world scenario are considered.


10. AOTX INDICES IN RESPONSE TO THE CROPS YIELD UNDER THE MALAYSIA CLIMATE
by Nurul Izma Mohammed, Nor Azam Ramli, Ahmad Shukri Yahya & Nurul Adyani Ghazali
Abstract

Ground level ozone (O3) is an atmospheric pollutant that encompasses a phytotoxic gas, which has much potential to cause adverse impacts on plants in the agricultural regions. The purpose of this study was to look at the contributions of ozone to Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of X ppb (AOTX) indices in response to the crops yield, under the Malaysia climate. Besides that, estimation of rice (Oryza sativa) reduction in Kedah, (‘rice bowl’ of Malaysia) due to ozone exposure was calculated based on the European benchmark. Environmental parameter that was used in this study was ozone concentration. These data were observed from 7a.m to 7p.m every day. However, the most critical AOTX index due to crops reduction that is suitable for Malaysia climate is still under investigation. According to the European benchmark, for AOT40 values above 3000 ppb, a 5% of yield loss is anticipated to occur. Based on the study, the value of AOT40 illustrates that the most of the months in year 2004 had exceeded the European benchmark. Thus, approximately, 1.60 tonnes per hectare of paddy yield loss occurred in year 2004. This data concluded that the ozone exposure to crops will reduce the production of the paddy.


11. APPROACHING DIFFERENT OF MINIMUM TORQUE RIPPLE FOR IMPROVING THE DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR
by Lotfi El M’barki, Moez Ayadi & Rafik Neji
Abstract

The induction motor (IM) is very well identified as the heart of electrical engineering of industry. The advance of changeable torque induction motor commands has a long history of improving direct torque control (DTC). Today’s sophisticated industrial commands are the technique of the extensive research and the resulting ones from the system approach to obtain. The improvement method DTC (IMDTC) is employed on technique switching table, variation of the reference torque error and the judiciously selected of flux error. DTC employs a couple of hysteresis comparators to make together torque and flux dynamic control. The performance of this IMDTC has been confirmed by simulations represented using a versatile simulation, Matlab/Simulink.


12. ASSESSMENT OF THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS AFTER TREATMENT WITH IVERMECTIN IN THE FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA
by Jonathan Eze & Matur Bernard Malau
Abstract

Study area: The study was conducted in the University of Abuja teaching hospital Gwagwalada, Abuja, from February 2009-June 2010.

Methodology: five (5) Skin snips were randomly collected from various parts of the body of volunteered onchocercal patients visiting the hospital and incubated inside normal saline to recover microfilaria. Nodules were screened by palpation and the diameter measured before and after treatment. Treatment of Onchocrcal volvulus (Semi-annual treatment) with ivermectin was carried out for two consecutive years.

Results: The effect of Ivermectin on the 250 onchocercal cases was quite revealing; 210 (84.2%) out of 250 subjects screened negative (had no microfilaria “mf” in their skin of) after treatment while 37 (15.8%) subjects still had positive ‘mf’in their skin after treatment (t = 46.89P <0.05). The mean reduction in ‘mf’ load in the skin during the first and second treatment regime was significant (P < 0.05). A decrease in ‘mf’ load from 100% positive cases to 40.24% and 3.27% during the first and second treatment regime shows that ivermectin was effective against O. volvulus. The ivermectin efficacy rate of 59.37% and 77.30% was recorded in the first and second treatments respectively. The effect of ivermectin was also observed on the size of the Nodules and the number of moribund worms. about94.4% of dead or moribund worms was recovered after treatment compared to 58.4% before treatment; nodules of patients after receiving up to two times ivermectin treatment appeared smaller in size (1.92cm) compared to their initial size (3.55cm) when treatment had not commenced. More than 80% of the female worms recovered from untreated subjects were inseminated/with fertilized oocytes while must worms recovered after treatment were un-inseminated/with unfertilized oocyctes. Oncochercal skin changes and other skin manifestation before and after treatment are both highlighted.


13. PHASE CONJUGATION AND PHONON ECHOES IN OPTICS AND ACOUSTICS
by Arthur Ekpekpo
Abstract

The phonon – echo phenomena is explained in terms of phase conjugation which is a concept widely used in non – linear optics. This point of view provides a unified description for backward echoes both in optics and in acoustics.


14. NON LINEAR ANOMALOUS SKIN – EFFECT IN METALS
by Arthur Ekpekpo
Abstract

The theory of nonlinear phenomena taking place under conditions of the anomalous skin – effect is presented. The nonlinearity is caused by the influence of the wave magnetic field on the dynamics of effective electrons. In the case of small wave amplitude A the imaginary part of the surface Z is proportional to A2, while the real part Re Z » A4. Under the strong nonlinearity conditions Z » A-1/5. All the effects are different manifestations of the magnetodynamical nonlinearity which is characteristic for pure metals at low temperatures.


15. PERFORMANCE METRIC COMPARISON OF AODV AND DSDV ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANETs USING NS-2
by Sachin Kumar Gupta & R.K. Saket
Abstract

Efficient routing protocols can provide significant benefits to mobile ad hoc networks in terms of both performance and reliability. Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is an infrastructure less and decentralized network which need a robust dynamic routing protocol. Many routing protocols for such networks have been proposed so far. Amongst the most popular ones are Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) routing protocol. The performance of AODV and DSDV routing protocol have been evaluated for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) in terms of throughput, the average end to end delay, jitter and drop etc. The performance of the AODV is better than the performance of the DSDV routing protocol. A network simulator-2 (NS-2) called MobiREAL simulator has been designed and developed for performance evaluation of AODV and DSDV routing protocol in this paper. To compare the performance of AODV and DSDV routing protocol, the simulation results were analyzed by graphical manner and trace file based on Quality of Service (QoS) metrics: such as throughput, drop, delay and jitter. Finally, the performance differentials based on network load, mobility, and network size have been analyzed. The simulation result analysis verifies the DSDV and AODV routing protocol performances.














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