Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 7, Issue 2 (May, 2011)

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1. ON SOME GENERALIZED DIFFERENCE SEQUENCE SPACES DEFINED BY A SEQUENCE OF MODULI
by Vakeel A. Khan & Ayaz Ahmad
Abstract

In this paper we define some generalized sequenc spaces defined by a sequence of moduli. The results here in proved are analogous to those by ASMA BEKTAS Cigdem (2006)[Journal of Zhejiang University Science A (2006),7(12) 2093-2096] .


2. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE SLOPE SOLAR STILL COUPLED WITH FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR AND PASSIVE SOLAR STILL

by Hitesh N Panchal, Mitesh I Patel, Bakul Patel, RanvirgiriGoswami & Manish Doshi

Abstract

Solar still is a very simple solar device used for converting the available brackish or waste water into the potable water. This device can be fabricated easily with available materials. The maintenance is also cheap and no skilled labor is required to make it. This device can be suitable solution to solve drinking water problem. Here comparison is made between the solar still coupled with Flat Plate Collector as well as Passive Solar still. One year study shows that  solar still coupled with Flat Plate collector increases the productivity of solar still of 35 %. Lower the water depth increases the productivity of solar still and solar radiation can also produce considerable effect on productivity.


3. APPLICATION OF THE ANALYTICAL ECT METHOD TO BCC METALS
by E. Aghemenloh, S.O Azi & S. Yusuf
Abstract

The analytical equivalent crystal theory method which is a modification of the ECT method has been used to establish a database of surface energy for the three low-index surfaces of alkali metals such as Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs. The calculated results are in good agreement with experiment and other theoretical values. And the calculated results show that the surface energy is anisotropic. As previously predicted, the surface energy of the close-packed plane (110) is the lowest of the three low-index surfaces.


4. A NOTE ON LIAPUNOV INEQUALITY AND ITS APPLICATION
by M.S.Mousa & E.M.Roshdy
Abstract

In the present note liapunov inequality is established for a nonlinear functional second order differential equation. 


5. TRINOMIAL TREE OPTION PRICING VIA THRESHOLD-GARCH MODEL
by Shu-Ing Liu
Abstract

In this paper, trinomial tree option pricing algorithms for Threshold-GARCH model are presented. The Threshold-GARCH pricing structure provides a more sophisticated description for the changing of conditional variances. To apply the Threshold-GARCH model to evaluate various types of options, convenient and efficient computation algorithms are urgently needed. A simple computational method, called the “Median” algorithm is proposed; moreover, extensions of the interpolating methods proposed by Ritchken & Trevor and Cakici & Topyan are discussed. The numerical results show that the proposed “Median” method is not only accurate, but also offers a significant reduction in computing-time.


6. A LEAST MEAN SQUARE BASED METHOD OF LOWPASS FIR FILTER DESIGN USING THE MATLAB TOOLBOX
by Kwaha B.J, Gyang B.N & Amalu P.C
Abstract

A lowpass digital filter was designed using the MATLAB toolbox. The programme code was based on the least mean square error criterion method and was run in two steps – viz- filter order estimation from given specifications, and determination of the coefficients of the transfer function using the estimated order and filter specifications. The amplitude response of the linear phase FIR filter was used to obtain a realizable filter transfer function for filter length, N = 40. It was observed that for a longer length the FIR filter has a sharper cut off FIR filter and a narrow transition band. This makes it suitable for processing baseband signals especially digitized voice, music and data signals. All tests were carried out with the aid of the command window, which was unlocked from the workspace desktop for easy accessibility.


7. MICRO GRID TECHNOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES ACROSS THE GLOBE
by Meena Agrawal & Arvind Mittal
Abstract

Innovations in technologies, economic benefits, quality requirements and environmental concerns are changing the face of the existing power system. Centralized generating facilities are giving way to smaller, more distributed generation partially due to the loss of traditional economies of scale. The need of an intelligent grid, better known as Micro grid at the distribution end, has been recognized to accommodate distributed energy resources (DERs) and renewable energy technologies on large scale. Micro grids can provide improved electric service reliability and better power quality to end customers and can also benefit local utilities by providing dispatch able load for use during peak power conditions or allowing system repairs without effecting customer loads. This paper highlights the concept, benefits and features of Micro Grids. The main technical challenges in the design, operation and control of Micro Grids are briefly outlined that must be overcome for their implementation effectively. The paper also presents a review the researches and activities of Micro Grid technology across the globe. It introduces the current Micro Grid research projects, especially in Europe, United State , Japan , Canada and India .


8. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF IGNITION TIME AND WATER BOILING TEST OF COAL AND BIOMASS BRIQUETTES BLEND
by T.U. Onuegbu, U.E. Ekpunobi, I.M. Ogbu, M.O. Ekeoma & F.O. Obumselu
Abstract

This work is aimed at comparing the ignition time and water boiling test of coal briquette blends with pennisetum purpurem (elephant grass) and imperata cylindrica (spear grass). Proximate analyses and elemental compositions of the coal and biomass were determined. Different samples of briquettes were produced by blending varying loads of the plant materials with the coal in the ratio of 0:100, 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 4:60, 50:50, and 100:0, using cassava starch as a binder and calcium carbonate (Ca(OH)2) as a desulfurizing agent. The results of the properties tested were compared. Ignition time decrease with increase in the plant material while coal blends with pennisetum purpurem performed better. In the water boiling test determination, burning rates as well as specific fuel consumptions were also determined. There is a variation in the results obtained.


9. STREAM SEDIMENT SURVEY OF ERUKU AND ITS ENVIRONS, CENTRAL NIGERIA: IMPLICATION FOR EXPLORATION
by Bamigboye O.S & Adekeye J.I.D
Abstract

Eruku and its environs lie within two belts of different lithologies (Osi migmatite – gneiss complex to the west and Egbe schist belt to the east) which have been well studied. This area has remained relatively uninvestigated in terms of mineralization and hence its mineralization potential is unknown. This work therefore aims at identifying the mineralization types and also to delineate the mineralized zones in this area.

In order to achieve these objectives, stream sediments sampling in Eruku and its environs was carried out. The stream sediments were collected at the confluence points of two or more rivers mostly at a depth of 20 – 25cm. The stream sediment samples were analyzed for trace and rare-earth elemental concentration using ICP-MS analytical method. The result of the geochemical analysis was thereafter subjected to multivariate statistical analysis and isograde plotting.

The multivariate analysis shows a total of five factor groups. Four of the five factor groups are related to mineralization. From the dendogram, a total of six cluster groups were distinct, three of these groups are related to mineralization while the other three are considered to be product of weathering and erosion of both mineralized and barren rocks in the study area. The correlation analysis of some selected elements from the result of the geochemical analysis shows Cs, Nb, Sn, Ta, Cu, Mo, Ni, V, Zn, Co among others to be strongly correlated while Ba is negatively or not correlated with most of the elements. The isograde plots show that almost all the elements have their peaks in the south-eastern part of the study area.

The conclusion drawn from the integration of the geochemical analysis, multivariate analysis and isograde plotting in this study is that the study area is mineralized with tantallite-cassiterite-columbite. These mineralizations are hosted by pegmatites that intrude the country rocks in the southeastern part of the study area. Also, these mineralisations are similar to the mineralization type in Egbe that lies to the east of the study area in terms of their host rocks and mineralization type.


10. DEVELOPMENT OF THE FORWARD KINEMATICS FOR ROBOT FINGERS BY USING ROBOREALM
by Jamaludin Jalani
Abstract

This paper presents a new method to capture the parameters from robot fingers by using RoboRealm tool. The unknown parameters of robot fingers can be captured and recorded in real time implementation for developing the forwards kinematics. The use of RoboRealm in this project is due to its powerful vision software application, which is utilized in machine vision, image analysis, and image processing systems. Here, in the case of the Bristol Elumotion Robot Fingers (BERUL), RoboRealm will assist to capture the angular parameters of joint 1 (ᶿ1), joint 2 (ᶿ2)  and joint 3(ᶿ3). Then, a linear relationship between  ᶿ1 and  ᶿ2 as well as ᶿ and ᶿ 3  can be computed. Having found these angle relationships, the forward kinematics of robot fingers can be developed easily and accurately as illustrated throughout this paper.


11. A DETERMINISTIC INVENTORY MODEL FOR DETERIORATING ITEMS WITH ON-HAND INVENTORY DEPENDENT, VARIABLE TYPE DEMAND RATE
by Srichandan Mishra, L.K.Raju, U.K.Misra & G.Mishra
Abstract

A model for deterministic perishable items that follows variable type demand rate with infinite time horizon, constant deterioration and without shortages is considered. An optimal production policy is derived with maximization of profit. The result is illustrated with numerical example.


12. SOIL–STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN STEEL BRACED STRUCTURES WITH FOUNDATION UPLIFT
by M.E. Boostani Darmian, M.Azhdary moghaddam & H.R.Naseri
Abstract

In order to understand the structural behavior, it is useful to study the effects of soil-structure interaction. But usually soil-structure interaction studies are done with the assumption that foundation is fixed to the soil. During strong earthquake motions, uplift in some parts of the foundation may occur depending upon the type of soil which structure is located on. This paper investigates the nonlinear behavior of various steel braced structures placed on different types of soil with varying hardness. This can help in better understanding of the actual behavior of structure during an earthquake. Results showed that for structures allowed to foundation uplift, the softer the soil, the higher will be changes in seismic response.


13. OPTIC AND ELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF CuGa0.5In0.5Se2 INGOT
by A. Harsono Soepardjo, Muhammad Nurdin & Arya Rezavidi
Abstract

Fabrication of ingot is first step to produce device solar cell and the second step is fabrication of thin film. This research will be explain only the optic and electric properties of CuGa0.5In0.5Se2 ingot solar cell. A solar cell material has been produced from CuGa0.5In0.5Se2 using the Bridgman method. At the Bridgman Method, solar cell material was heated at maximum temperature 1050oC and re-cooled until ambience temperature. Heating and cooling process of CuGa0.5In0.5Se2 material took 71 hours. The result is an ingot which was then optically and electrically characterized. Optic characterization utilized XRD (X-ray Diffraction) and XRF (X-ray Fluorescent), whereas electric characterization utilized the four-point and two-point probe. The result of XRD characterization showed that the crystal orientation was [101], [112], [103], [211], [213], [301], [312], [008], and [424]. This crystal orientation was the principal crystal orientation of solar cell material I-III-VI2. By using the XRD result, the crystal lattice parameter a, c, and c/a can be measured. The structure of this material was chalcopyrite with a c/a ≈ 2 value, whereas other optic characterizations used XRF to measure the material’s % weight composition. Measurement using XRF resulted in the % best weight composition of CuGa0.5In0.5Se2 as follows: Cu: 20.7233%, Ga: 9.1403%, In: 28.8963%, and Se: 41.2401%. Result of electric characterization showed that this material is a type p semi-conductor and its resistivity is 6.280 Ωm.


14. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND NUTRIENT EVALUATION OF TETRACARPIDIUM CONOPHORUM ( NIGERIAN WALNUT) ROOT
by P.B.Ayoola, A. Adeyeye & O.O.Onawumi
Abstract

Sample of Tetracarpidium conophorum root (Nigerian walnut) was analysed for phytochemical composition, Vitamins and Mineral constituents. Phytochemical screening and subsequent quantification revealed the presence of bioactive compounds. Tannin,0.545mg/g Saponin,10.705mg/g, Alkaloid,0.41mg/g, Oxalate,0.895mg/g, Phenols, 0.215mg/g.

The mineral analysis revealed  K,0.002mg/g, Ca,0.004mg/g, Na,0.002, Mg,0.105mg/g, Fe,0.004mg/g,Zn,0.000045, Mn, 0.000021mg/g, Cu, 0.00009mg/g, Cr,0.000029mg/g.

Vitamin composition results  showed that the plant roots contained Thiamine (B1) 0.002mg/g, Ascorbic acid (C)4.1mg/g, Riboflavin (B2) 0.004mg/g, Niacin,0.004mg/g ,Cyanocobalamin (B12) 0.001mg/g.

The results proved that Tetracarpidium conophorum root could be a potential source of useful drugs formulation.

15. DETERMINATION OF NITRATE ANION IN WASTE WATER FROM NINE SELECTED AREAS OF COASTAL GUYANA VIA A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD
by R.C. Jagessar & L. Sooknundun
Abstract

Globally, the presence of nitrate anions in water beyond the threshold limit can be deleterious to both flora and fauna life. Guyana’s waste and domestic water needs monitoring to assess the concentration of toxic anions and cations. High levels of nitrate anion beyond the threshold limit can induce the “blue baby” syndrome amongst other effects. This paper focuses on the determination of nitrate anion concentration from nine selected areas of coastal Guyana using an Ultra Violet  Spectrophotometric method.  These areas monitored were  No. 58 Livehood Village, Rose Hall Town, Skeldon GUYSUCO Estate, Good Hope, Ogle, Stabroek, Parika, Supenaam, Spring Garden. The results showed that the concentrations of nitrates were not as high and are below the internationally accepted threshold values. The average concentration been 0.03mg/L, 0.06mg/L and 0.20 mg/L, 1.77 mg/L, 2.363 mg/L, 0.333mg/L, 0.17 mg/L, 0.19 mg/L, 0.18mg/L NO3- for the above several  areas  respectively. The results were accepted at the 95% confidence leve using statistical analysis. The US public Health Service designated safe limit for nitrate in water as 45mg/L.. The applicable range of concentrations using the above method is 0.1-2 mg/L NO3. A maximum level of 45 mg/L is established as worldwide guidance for nitrate concentration in water. In Europe, the maximum permitted levels of nitrate in potable water is 50.0 mg/L, while in the US-EPA has established a guideline for the maximum level of nitrate-nitrogen of 10 mg/L. It can safely be informed that the nine selected areas choosen are not polluted with anions. In an effort to improve water quality, the Government of Guyana has embarked on the construction of sand filtration and water treatment plants along the inhabited coastland of Guyana.


16. BLOCK THRESHOLDING ALGORITHM FOR ENHANCEMENT OF AN AUDIO SIGNAL CORRUPTED BY NOISE
by V. Harini, B. Sindhu, G.Sasi kumari & Habibulla Khan
Abstract

Removing noise from audio signals requires a non diagonal processing of time-frequency coefficients to avoid producing “Musical noise”. State of the art algorithms perform a parameterized filtering of spectrogram coefficients with empirically fixed parameters. A block thresholding estimation procedure is introduced, which adjusts all parameters adaptively to signal property by minimizing a Stein estimation of the risk.














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