Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 7, Issue 1 (April, 2011)

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1. BEHAVIOUR OF POLYMERIC MULTISCALE FOAM UNDER DYNAMIC LOADING -STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE DENSITY AND THE WALLS OF BEADS
by P. Viot, L. Maheo & A. Mercier
Abstract

Polymeric foams constituted of large beads and microscopic cells are used in a number of applications of passive safety. Previous experimental studies had shown that the heterogeneity of the bead density and the network constituted of bead walls have an influence on the foam behaviour. A numerical approach has been developed to model the local behaviour of multiscale structure of a polymeric foam. The objective of this study is to estimate the influence of the cell microstructure and the bead wall structure on the macroscopic response of the foam and moreover to explain the phenomena of bead wall buckling and strain localisation bands observed experimentally. Numerical simulations (in LS-Dyna) have been carried out in order to implement the two sizes of the foam morphology, the mesoscopic scale of beads were represented by a dense wall structure (the thickness of the walls is one of the parameter of the modelling) and the behaviour of microscopic cells was represented by a classical model of cellular material (implemented in FE code and experimentally identified). A design of experiment was established to better identify the influence of each parameter -thickness of the wall, bead density and mean strain- on the local and global response of the multiscale structure.


2. PROBABILISTIC ALGORITHMIC APPROACH AND GEOMETRY FOR CHECKING AND VERIFICATION ERROR IN GEORGRAPHICAL DATA

by Kone Forokoro & Xie Zhong

Abstract

Geographical data, like any other data, are prone to errors. The management of spatial integrity constraints in geographic information system is made by special procedures and declarative mechanisms at priori to avoid registration errors of measurement. In this article we propose not to define special procedures or to preclude the presence of measurement errors in a geographic database, but to introduce an approach that allows reconstructing the actual spatial object from the object obtained in the field with errors of measurement. This geographical object is modeled in triangular meshing in the context of algorithmic geometry. So we use this formality of Bayesian networks for pattern recognition. Thus, constraint checking will submit to a learning process provided with explanatory information for the decision. The study is applied to a spatial planning.


3. MOSAICING OF TORN DOCUMENT IMAGES
by Nagaraj B Patil, V.M Viswanatha & Sanjay Pande M.B
Abstract

Recovery of ripped-up documents is a problem that often arises in archival study and investigation science. The growing interest in featureless image mosaicing is because of its demand as it is still in incubation stage. The use of mosaicing  torn document images is that it has reliable performance, fast document recovery capability and on-screen visual verification. Further, Most document reconstruction problems can be solved in two steps first, finding an initial set of matching fragment pairs, then resolving the ambiguity among these fragments to reconstruct the original document. The principle technique used here is the featureless image mosaicing technique. The proposed architecture for mosaicing of torn document images involves various stages. The first stage includes the scanning of the two fragments of the ripped up document such that the non-uniform sides face each other. The fragments include both uniform and non-uniform boundaries. We have also considered the non-uniform boundary values since, they had to be separated from the uniform boundary values.  In present work, we have planned to design an algorithm to re-construct or mosaic a ripped-up document.  We have corroborated the methodology by considering two fragments of the same torn/ripped up document.


4. IMAGE DENOISING BASED ON SOFT COMPUTING TECHNIQUES
by G.Vijaya & V.Vasudevan
Abstract

Image Denoising is one of the existing problems in research area. This paper presents an interactive algorithm for image Denoising and segmentation. This paper explains the task of segmenting any given color image using soft computing techniques. The segmentation techniques used are Fuzzy Clustering (FC), Fuzzy C Means (FCM) clustering and Convolutional Networks (CN). After the image is segmented, the noise can be removed by using bilateral filtering. The denoised images are compared using image quality metrics. The image quality metrics are Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), and Mean Average Error (MAE). The time taken for Denoising is also used as a comparison parameter. The techniques have been tested with images of different size and resolution and the results are proven to be better than the existing state-of-art algorithms.


5. ADAPTIVE ALGORITHMS FOR ACOUSTIC ECHO CANCELLATION IN SPEECH PROCESSING
by Radhika Chinaboina, D.S.Ramkiran, Habibulla Khan, M.Usha, B.T.P.Madhav, K.Phani Srinivas & G.V.Ganesh
Abstract

Adaptive filtering constitutes one of the core technologies in digital signal processing and finds numerous application areas in science as well as in industry. Adaptive filtering techniques are used in a wide range of applications, including echo cancellation, adaptive equalization, adaptive noise cancellation, and adaptive beamforming. Acoustic echo cancellation is a common occurrence in today’s telecommunication systems. The signal interference caused by acoustic echo is distracting to users and causes a reduction in the quality of the communication. This paper focuses on the use of LMS and NLMS algorithms to reduce this unwanted echo, thus increasing communication quality.


6. MINIMUM BIT ERROR RATE MULTI USER DETECTION FOR SDMA SYSTEM
by Divya Morla, Ravi Sankar Chandu, Habibullah Khan, B.T.P.Madhav, K.Ramakrishna, G.Sasi Kumari & Mahesh Sonti
Abstract

In this paper a space-time decision feedback equalization (ST-DFE) scheme with Multi User Detection (MUD) for multiple receiver antenna aided space division multiple access systems is used to achieve minimum bit error rate(MBER). The MBER multi user detection is capable of improving bit error rate performance and enhancing the attainable system capacity. In this paper we show that the BER performance of a system is improved over that of the standard minimum mean square error (MMSE) design. The implementation of the MBER ST-DFE assisted MUD is proposed using a stochastic gradient- based least bit error rate algorithm hence achieving a lower computational complexity than the LMS algorithm. The simulation results demonstrate that the MBER ST-DFE assisted MUD is robust to channel estimation errors as well as to potential error propagation imposed by decision feedback errors, compared to the MMSE ST-DFE assisted MUD.


7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERACTIVE SOFTWARE FOR ASSESSING RISKS AND ESTIMATING INDUSTRIAL MAN-HOUR LOSS
by I.K. Adegun, H.A. Ajimotokan & G.O. Oyelohunnu
Abstract

In lower income countries such as those of the South Asia and Africa, several workers are either ignorant or un-care about the risks associated with the jobs they do. This has led to frequent accident situations in industries causing colossal loss of resource. This paper presents the development of interactive software employed for assessing risks and estimating industrial man-hour loss and its economic implications. Accident investigation registers were administered to 21 various manufacturing and oil and gas industries to assess their workplace associated risks. Typical incident cases such as amputation, electrocution, asphyxia, crushes, head injuries, sprain, slips and falls, and some others were identified during the study duration. It was discovered that about 24 hours to 3,158 hours could be lost depending on the severity of injuries/accidents. For catastrophic category of injuries/accidents, a worker could be render incapable or even dies. A mathematical relation was formulated for quantifying the man-hour losses in monetary values.


8. ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF INCREASED RADIOFREQUENCY EXPOSURE FROM MOBILE PHONES IN SOUTHWESTHERN NIGERIA
by Oladapo O.O, Ishola G.A, Ayokunnu D.O & Akerele O.O
Abstract

Wireless communication devices have been increasingly used recently in Nigeria with a corresponding public perception of increased radiofrequency (RF) radiation. This perception has developed into public concerns, thus requiring verification. For the purpose of verification, a survey in form of an opinion poll was conducted by means of an interview using questionnaires.

The survey shows that people actually experienced symptoms like headache, fatigue, dizziness, and heat sensation. However, out of the respondents that have experienced one symptoms or the other, 84% still believe it is safe to use  mobile phones. Only 4% of those that claimed they experienced symptoms had consulted a doctor in connection with the symptoms.


9. WEIGHTS OF OBESITY FACTORS USING ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS
by Lazim Abdullah & Fateen Najwa Azman
Abstract

Obesity is one of the most prevalent serious public health problems in today’s ultra modern lifestyle. It is a condition of excessive fat accumulation to the body in which authentic factors contributed to obesity are very much inconclusive. Although many medical researches unveiled several factors may contribute to development of obesity but the extents of contribution or weight for each factor remain unknown. This paper aims to propose weights for the selected factors contributed to development of obesity using an analytical approach. The Saaty’s Analytical Heirarchy Process (AHP) model is employed in computing weights for the factors. One hundred and fifty respondents from Kuala Terengganu Town Council of Malaysia were sampled to provide input data using a sixteen-item pair wise comparison questionnaire.  Respondents’ scaled data from 1 to 9 were averaged using arithmetic mean prior to computing using the five-step of AHP. The results show that the factor of sedentary lifestyle was received the highest weight followed by the factor of genetics and medical and psychiatric illness. The weights for the three factors were 0.6042, 0.2649 and 0.1304 respectively. The result implicates the importance of changing life style in minimising to development of obesity.


10. MEASUREMENT OF RELIABILITY PARAMETERS OF AMMONIA SYNTHESIS UNIT IN A FERTILIZER PLANT BY EMPLOYING BOOLEAN FUNCTION TECHNIQUE
by S.C. Agarwal & Mool Pal
Abstract

This paper discusses the reliability of ammonia synthesis unit. This unit consist of five subunits arranged in series and parallel configuration. For measuring reliability a mathematical model has been developed with the help of Boolean function technique. All necessary graphical illustrations are given at the end so as to explain the practical utility of the model.


11. EXPLICIT EQUATION FOR SAFETY FACTOR OF SIMPLE SLOPES
by Said M. Easa & Ali R. Vatankhah
Abstract

The existing methods for determining the safety factor of simple homogeneous slopes are graphical in nature and may require iterations. This technical note presents a simple explicit equation for determining the safety factor for such conditions. A polynomial surface of the stability number was established based on the Taylor’s chart. A dimensionless parameter and a trigonometric series approximation were then used along with the stability number surface to establish the explicit equation. The proposed equation is applicable to the case of homogeneous slopes without seepage as well as the special cases involving complete submergence, complete sudden drawdown, steady seepage, and zero boundary neutral force. Validation of the proposed equation was performed by comparing its results with those of the existing graphical and analytical methods. The results showed that the proposed equation was very accurate. As such, the proposed equation should be useful in many geotechnical applications, especially those that implement safety factor as part of a larger modeling system.


12. LITERATURE REVIEW ON CEMENT KILN DUST USAGE IN SOIL AND WASTE STABILIZATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
by M.K Rahman, S. Rehman & O.S.B Al-Amoudi
Abstract

The globally growing demand of cement results in towering collection of kiln dust from cement plants. The disposal of this fine dust is very difficult and poses an environmental threat. To overcome this problem, research is being carried out in different parts of the world to find out economical and efficient ways and means of using cement kiln dust (CKD) in various applications like soil stabilization, cement production, pavements, waste product stabilization, agriculture and cement products, etc. This study presents a research review on CKD usage in soil and waste utilization and the results of experimental investigation on its usage in building block manufacturing and soil stabilization.

The experimental results clearly showed that the use of 34% CKD may bring the pH of sludge above 10, which is enough to stabilize the sludge. Furthermore, the final concentrations of heavy metals were found to be within acceptable international limits. Tests conducted on blocks made using aggregates in the Eastern Province (Type-N) and light-weight pozzollanic aggregates (Type-P) indicated that addition of CKD to cement results in significant gain in strength of the blocks.

13. DIRECT POSITION KINEMATICS OF A THREE REVOLUTE-PRISMATIC-SPHERICAL PARALLEL MANIPULATOR
by Soheil Zarkandi & Mohammad Reza Esmaili
Abstract

In this work, the direct position kinematics of a 3 degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator with three identical limbs, type revolute-prismatic-spherical (RPS), is analyzed. In contrast to the previous studies on this class of manipulators, the revolute joints of the proposed manipulator are actuated rather than the prismatic joints. Direct position kinematics of the manipulator leads to a system of three nonlinear equations in three unknowns that are reduced to a univariate polynomial of degree eight and two quadratic equations in sequence using Sylvester dialytic elimination method. In addition, to show the efficiency of the presented method a numerical example is provided.


14. USING HOMER POWER OPTIMIZATION SOFTWARE FOR COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF HYBRID-SOLAR POWER GENERATION RELATIVE TO UTILITY COST IN NIGERIA
by K.R. Ajao, O.A.Oladosu & O.T. Popoola
Abstract

HOMER is a micro power optimization software used in evaluating designs of both off-grid and grid-connected power systems for a variety of applications. The cost benefit analysis of a wind turbine-solar hybrid system was done using HOMER software and comparison was also made with the cost per kilowatt of central grid or utility supply. The hybrid system have a pay-back period of about thirty-three years and at current costs, central grid power is the least expensive option but may not be available to most rural households far from the grid. Hence it is necessary to supply these areas from isolated power sources.


15. ON ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF SOLUTIONS OF INTEGRODIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
by E.M. Roshdy
Abstract

We shall obtain an upper bound for the solution of integro-differential equation. Also the stability of solution in investigated mathematical subject classification: 34D99, 45M10, 45j05.