Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 7, Issue 4 (June, 2011)
Special Issue on "Energy Sustainability for Global Techno-Economic Uplift"

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EDITORIAL for the Special Issue on "Energy Sustainability for Global Techno-Economic Uplift"

1. FOAM DYNAMICS IN POROUS MEDIA AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY: REVIEW
by Mohammed Idrees Al-Mossawy, Birol Demiral & D.M. Anwar Raja
Abstract

The usage of foam in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is either to reduce the gas/oil ratio in production wells or to control gas mobility in water-alternating-gas injection. Any project of foam injection needs laboratory experiments and simulation studies to optimize factors affecting foam behavior at the target reservoir. The study presents characteristics of foam dynamics in porous media, and a comprehensive review for the factors should be considered in planning for foam injection projects. Lessons learnt from field applications of foam in EOR have been presented. Mathematical modelling of foam in porous media is not the objective of this study and it has not been included. The present study is a useful reference for engineers and scientists interested in foam flow in porous media, and it provides a background for the laboratory research of foam injection projects.


2. THE INFLUENCE OF COMPOSITIONS ON LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS RESIDUE IN STORAGE

by Zainal Zakaria & Azeman Mustafa

Abstract

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) has been regarded as a cleaner fuel because it has less impact on air quality. Residue problem was still unsolved since at the early stage of LPG usage in Malaysia, therefore, it was considered as one of the national interest projects. The objective of this study is to obtain detailed understanding of LPG characteristics in cylinder during the continuous exhaustion process via modification of the existing composition design. The propane content of minimum of 60% must be considered in the planning of the composition. The distributions of heat in cylinder showed that the sensible heat used for evaporation process is taken mainly at the internal wall. With that, the dominant heat derived for the evaporation process is through the axial direction than the radial direction. Finally, the study indicates that with proper selection of operating parameters the LPG residue in a cylinder could be reduced to less than 10%.


3. RENEWABLE ENERGY POTENTIAL FROM MICRO HYDRO FOR TECHNO-ECONOMIC UPLIFT – A BRIEF REVIEW
by Tian Chuan Min, Mohammad Iskandar Jobli, Abu Saleh Ahmed, Robert Malong, Masri Zaini, Mohammad Omar Abdullah, Mohd Narzam Jaffar & Mohamad Abdullah Ali
Abstract

Modern world requires energy more than ever. As the global population and modernization exhibit seemingly ever upward trends, it is certain that the crave for energy will continue to rise. However, conventional energy is depleting at an alarming pace, though renewable energy seems to prospect a promising alternative. Being one of the more established and successful renewable energy technologies, the authors attempt to review the micro hydro as well as its potential in providing sustainable energy to the mankind.


4. DEVELOPMENT OF A SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM EQUIPPED WITH A SUN TRACKER SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY IN KUCHING, SARAWAK
by Koh Kiong Chai, Kai Meng Tay* & Mohammad Omar Abdullah
Abstract

A solar photovoltaic system consists of photovoltaic panel(s) and it converts energy of sunlight into electricity via photovoltaic effects.  Installation of a sun tracker is one of the approaches to improve the performance of a solar photovoltaic system.  A sun tracker is a device for orientating photovoltaic panel towards the sun.  The aim of this paper is to examine the use of a solar photovoltaic system with a sun tracker in Batu Lintang, Kuching, Sarawak (1º32’09.73’’N, 110º20’32.70E).  A designed and developed solar photovoltaic system that equipped with a sun tracker is presented.  Our developed solar photovoltaic system consists of five modules, i.e., a sensor system, a linear actuator system, a tracking mechanism, a battery storage system and charge controller, and a microcontroller system.  The performance of our developed system is further analyzed and evaluated with experiments.  Concluding remarks is further presented. 


5. A PASSIVE MALAYSIAN RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WITH A HYDRONIC RADIATOR
by Azhaili Baharun, Siti Halipah Ibrahim, Mohammad Omar Abdullah & Ooi Koon Beng
Abstract

This paper presents a study to find a ‘green’ alternative to the conventional air conditioner seen on the walls of many residential buildings in Malaysia. EnergyPlus®, the official building simulation software of the US Department of Energy, is used to model a row of four units of modern low cost terrace housing, end walls facing East and West to minimize exposure to the sun’s ray. The high altitude of the tropical sun heats the metallic roofs to above 60°C during the day and the attic is naturally cooled by outdoor air infiltration through effective leakage area of 2342m2 per unit. Insulation of R-value 2.5 (m2.K)/W is added above the ceilings. Simulations are run with outdoor dry bulb temperatures that are exceeded, on average, by 0.4% (35 hours) in a year, for Kuching, in East Malaysia. Typical meteorological year data shows that the maximum nightly temperatures in Kuching are about 25°C and in West Malaysian cities with World Meteorological Organisation stations are about 26°C. When radiative heat loss to the dark night sky is included, water can be cooled to 25°C. Preliminary simulations verify that beam solar radiation enters through the windows, and external window shades lower the maximum indoor temperature in the hottest West end unit, unoccupied,  by 0.6°C to 30.5°C. Night cooled water circulated to a hydronic radiator, then lowers the maximum ‘well-mixed’ operative temperature of the unit, occupied, to below 30.2°C. The indoor air is stratified to a hotter upper and a lower cooler layer, and the occupant’s environment is comfortable with air speeds of 0.8m/s.


6. A MULTI-PURPOSE MINI HYBRID FUEL CELL-BATTERY-SOLAR PORTABLE DEVICE FOR RURAL APPLICATIONS: LABORATORY TESTING
by M.O. Abdullah, Y.K. Gan, K.M.Tay & N. Julai
Abstract

In this study, a novel multipurpose portable PEM fuel cell-solar-battery system was custom designed, constructed and laboratory tested, specially aims for applications in the rural areas remote from conventional electric power grid. We obtain encouraging results which show the applicability of such system for used as a multipurpose kit for portable applications. Our study shows that various power sources namely solar cell, battery and PEM fuel cells can combine harmoniously to obtain higher power voltage, whilst maintaining their individual advantages – such as good startup performance. Our typical results show that the maximum power of the PEM fuel cell/solar/battery with load is in the range of 2.4W-2.7W which can be maintained continuously. Apart from good cold start characteristic, the portable system also exhibits stable voltage, compact in size and acceptable in weight, hence suitable for rural power application at places remote from conventional grid.














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