Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 6, Issue 4 (March, 2011)

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1. QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF COMONOMER CONTENT IN ETHENE-alpha-ALKENE COPOLYMERS BY SOLID STATE 1H-MAS NMR (ETHENE-alpha-HEXENE)
by Eddy W. Hansen, Jobby Paul, Sissel Jørgensen, Bjørnar Arstad & Aud Bouzga
Abstract

1H-MAS NMR is shown to be a powerful and attractive technique for quantifying the comonomer content in ethene-a-alkene copolymers, as exemplified by a series of ethene-a-hexene copolymers. The main advantages of applying 1H-MAS solid-state NMR are related to; a) the very short experimental sampling time, on the order of a few minutes b) the bypass of sample preparation, as compared to traditional high-resolution liquid-state 13C-NMR which necessitates a high temperature (1300C) preparation period of days, or even weeks, c) no thermal sample treatment and d) no need for calibration. In particular, it will be shown that the technique allows the comonomer content of cross-linked LDPE to be probed, which is generally difficult, or impossible, by solution-state NMR since these polymers are mostly non-soluble.


2. BOUNDS ANALYSIS OF SINGULAR VALUES FOR REAL SYMMETRIC INTERVAL MATRICES

by Fang Su, Zhan Xu, Qiaoli Dong & Housen Li

Abstract

In this paper, we present a new method for calculating the singular values bounds of an interval matrix.  we regard singular values as the the largest eigenvalues of the Jordan-Wielandt matrix. Using the property of eigenvalue bound for interval matrix, we give a method about singular values bounds. This method can analyse stability of systems in control fields extensively. An numerical example illustrating the applicability and effectiveness of the new method is also provided.


3. GAS IN PLACE DETERMINATION IN ABNORMALLY PRESSURED MASJED-SOLEYMAN-JURRASIC GAS RESERVOIR
by Abolfazl Bagheri Nezhad, Reza Mohebbifar & Sepehr Aghahoseini
Abstract

One of the major resources of world energy at present and future is gas reservoirs. One of the most unusual deep sour gas reservoirs in Iran is the Jurassic gas reservoir in Masjed-Soleyman. This reservoir has special characteristics such as high percentage of acidic gases, high initial and abnormal pressure, deep faults and structural complexities and also particularly due to being under the oil reservoir of MIS. In such cases, in order to present a useful, logical, and optimized plan for gas production and also to determine IGIP and recoverable gas, Volumetric methods are not capable to predict reservoir performance properly, so material balance method is used here. In this method, by using only production data we can get valuable data on reservoir performance at present and future easily. In present study considering the necessity of designing a new plan for production and removing the errors in previous calculations, the volume of gas in place by the material balance method (variations of P/Z vs. Cumulative gas production) is calculated.


4. THE EFFECT OF WARM MIX ASPHALT ADDITIVE (SASOBIT®) ON DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM BITUMEN CONTENT
by Frag Ahmed Ma Kridan, Ahmad Kamil Arshad & Mohd Yusof Abdul Rahman
Abstract

Research in the laboratory was carried out to determine if addition of warm mix asphalt additive (sasobit) has potential to reduce the amount of optimum bitumen content comparison with control mix. To fulfil this purpose two types of mixes have been produced by Marshall method procedure.The first was control mix AC14 gradation mixed with unmodified bitumen 80/100 penetration. The other was identical in gradation proportion to minimize the varieties, it was mixed with modifed same bitumen penetration with sasobit additive in concentration 2 %  identified as saso mix. Both mixes produced at mixing temperature 155°C and 135°C  respectively. The volumetric properties Bulk density (Gmb), Air voids in compacted mix (AV), voids filled with bitumen (VFA) as well as Marshall stability and flow were within investigation to determine the effect of sasobit additive on the amount of optimum bitumen content. The specimens results which prepared by Marshall compacter showed significant reduction in air voids in compacted mix accompanied with adding the sasobit additive on the mix in most cases. The results also showed somewhat decrease in stability whereas slight increase regarding flow parameter values in saso cases in all bitumen content as well as slight increase in VFA while no clear trend in term of Gmm. With plotting volumetric values to both mixes (control and saso) versus bitumen content confirming with requirements set by PWD (Malaysian Public Work Department, Section 4 Standard Specification For Road works). The result drawn from these graphes have appeared the optimum bitumen content were 4.82 % and 4.78%  to control and  saso mixes respectively, which means that the addition of sasobit additive on the mix by using Marshall Method revealed very slight reduction in optimum bitumen content. Otherwise the addition of sasobit additive on virgin bitumen barely revealed different amount of optimum bitumen content between both investigated mixes.


5. A NUMERICAL STUDY OF SINGLE-PHASE FORCED CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER WITH FLOW FRICTION IN ROUND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS
by Pedram Mohajeri Khameneh, Iraj Mirzaie, Nader Pourmahmoud, Mostafa Rahimi & Samad Majidyfar
Abstract

Three dimensional simulation of the single-phase laminar flow and forced convective heat transfer of water in a round tube counter flow type heat exchanger is investigated numerically. In this article, refrigerant side heat transfer characteristics are studied by simulating a round tube counter flow heat exchanger. The geometry and operating conditions of that indicated heat exchanger are created using a finite volume-based computational fluid dynamics technique. The aims of this paper are to obtain computational Nusselt number and validate it with available experimental studies. The results in this numerical method are in a good agreement with experimental results within an error in acceptable range. After that, at each Z-location, variation of dimensionless local temperatures, non-dimensional local heat flux variation and dimensionless local Nusselt number distribution along the tube length are obtained numerically. Finally, in this paper, sensitivity analysis for round tube counter flow type heat exchanger model of this numerical simulation is explored.  


6. DISCRETE INEQUALITY OF GRONWALL – BELLMAN TYPE
by E.M.Roshdy & M.S.Mousa
Abstract

A powerful technique in the study of many problems concerning the behavior of solutions of discrete time systems is to use the recurrent inequalities involving sequences of real numbers, which may be considered as discrete analogues of Gronwall – Bellman inequality [3] or its variants. In recent years there have several linear and nonlinear discrete generalization of this useful inequality for instance see [1, 2, 4, 5].The aim of this paper is to establish some useful discrete inequalities which claim the following as their origin.


7. GREEDY RANDOMIZED ADAPTIVE SEARCH PROCEDURES FOR A SINGLE PRODUCT NETWORK DESIGN MODEL
by Mahdis Haghighi Gashti & Hassan Javanshir
Abstract

We consider a two-stage supply chain which contains a production facility and distribution centers (DCs) that supply retailers demand. The objective is to locate distribution centers in the network such that the sum of fixed facility location, pipeline inventory, and safety stock costs is minimized. We use Greedy randomized adaptive search procedures (GRASP) to solve the model and compare their performance to that of a Lagrangian heuristic and genetic algorithms (GAs) developed in earlier work. The comparison represent that GRASP provides solutions which are similar quality to those from the Lagrangian heuristic. The results show that GRASP has significantly better solutions than GA with only binary vector and GA with only random keys.


8. INVOLUTORY MATRIX IN VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY
by P.Shanmugam & C.Loganathan
Abstract

In Hill cipher encryption, the complexity of finding the inverse of the matrix during decryption is eliminated by adopting self invertible matrices. Authentication of hall tickets for candidates during examination is a complicated issue. By evaluating simultaneously encryption and decryption with details of text, photos and signatures of candidates it is easy to prevent malpractices during examination held at various centres of the institution.


9. CUTTING STOCK PROBLEM: SOLUTION BEHAVIORS
by Izzeddin A. O. Abuhassan & Hebah H. O. Nasereddin
Abstract

Many products are produced in rolls or sheets, are cut into sizes required by the client. The paper describes possible solution to reduce row products from the cutting process losses. This problem is a known problem in the science of operations research to Cutting Stock Problem, a problem is not simple to solve, also known as the problem of autopsy Coil Slitting Problem. This problem has many forms, there is cut in one dimension, and there is cut in two Dimension like cutting cloth or paper, to cut rectangular and these are more complex. This article touch on the application you have done to reduce losses to the problem of cutting in one dimension.

Be relatively easy if we will cut off the panels and one or we will use one form of cutting and repeat on many boards, but that usually occurs is not. Result because the required quantity of each show is different from the other, we need to use multiple forms of hacking. This is what makes the selection of the optimal solution by trial and error almost impossible.


10. AUTOMATION OF A PROTOMATIC LABELLER OF A BREWERY USING SIEMENS SIMATIC STEP 7 CONTROL SOFTWARE: A CASE STUDY OF ACCRA BREWERY LIMITED (ABL)
by Erwin Normanyo, Afua Pokua & Isaac A. Adetunde
Abstract

In this study, Siemens Simatic Step 7 control software was considered and used to make the labelling of bottled beer faster; make the operations effective and efficient to meet the current line demand of 30,000 bottles per hour. A Siemens Step 7 Control Software based automated Protomatic labeller ensures the targeted 30,000 bph. For the automation, inputs and outputs were established leading to choice of I/O modules. A PLC ladder logic program was developed and simulation was conducted using Simatic PLC SIM. Simulation results validated the applicability of the ladder logic program. Protomatic labeller automation guaranteed reduction in downtime, realization of targeted production, easier troubleshooting and maintenance.


11. PHASE TRANSITIONS OF THE 1-D HUBBARD MODEL
by E.O. Aiyohuyin, Amen Oni-Ojo & Arthur Ekpekpo
Abstract

We show that the BCS Hamiltonian is a variant of the Hubbard model. The mean-field free energy of the system is derived. The pairing amplitude plays the role of the order parameter and it is used to study the phase transitions. The entropy and the heat capacity are obtained in this work.


12. NON LINEAR MAGNETOACOUSTIC EFFECTS
by Arthur Ekpekpo
Abstract

Non-conducting magnets comprise the set of elastic and magnetic subsystems coupled with each other by magnetostrictive interaction, which, being, nonlinear, not only renormalizes a sound velocity but makes a sound-like mode strongly nonlinear. The effects are notably great (“gigantic”) in antiferromagnetics with a soft magnetic mode “effective” nonlinear moduli for ultrasound can exceed ones for usual solids by 103-104. As a result, many acoustic analogues of the known nonlinear optics phenomena became practically attainable. It is concluded that antiferromagnet with a soft mode is an exclusively convenient object for experimental realization of various nonlinear dynamic effect including strongly nonlinear ones.


13. BULK PROPERTIES OF UNCONVENTIONAL SUPERCONDUCTORS
by Arthur Ekpekpo
Abstract

In a conventional s-wave superconductor, the order parameter is totally symmetric. Therefore the low energy excitations have a gap except for the case of a gapless superconductor with magnetic impurities. For the s-wave state, there is moreover no low-lying collective mode, since in the case of charged particles the collective density fluctuations are nothing but Plasma modes. The existence of the gap in the excitation spectrum naturally leads to the exponential temperature dependence of various physical qualities, such as the specific heat, relaxation rate of nuclear magnetic resonance, (NMR) and knight shift.


14. ELASTIC ANISOTROPY OF HCP METAL CRYSTALS AND POLYCRYSTALS
by Desmond Tromans
Abstract

The monocrystal elastic behaviours of twenty four hexagonal close packed (HCP) metals at room temperature are reviewed based on published values of their monocrystal elastic constants. In particular, the angular variation of the Young’s Modulus (E) and the Rigidity (Shear) Modulus (G) are determined using general equations developed by Voigt [1928] and comparisons between the different metals presented graphically. The consequences of anisotropic monocrystal behaviour on the elastic behaviour of polycrystals composed of randomly oriented grains (crystal aggregates) are explored using a three dimensional spherical analysis together with the analytical methods of Voigt [1889] and Reuss [1929], and comments made on the consequences of non-randomly oriented grains.


15. PROBABILISTIC APPROACH FOR MODIFIED MINIMUM ENERGY CODING WITH PHASE CODED SSMA
by O.P. Chaudhary, R.K. Saket, Lokendra Kumar Sharma & Manish Gupta
Abstract

Source coding with spread spectrum technique for reducing multiple access interference (MAI) in phase coded SSMA wireless sensor network has been presented in this paper. The source symbol is represented by modified minimum energy coding (MME). When each channel uses MME coding combined with phase coded SSMA the probability of error of multiple channels sending signals at the same time is lowered, this implies that the MAI is reduced. It has been analysed that with the new low MAI with MME coding, signal to noise ratio significantly increases while error probability decreases. Finally, a sensor network system is designed and simulated to verify the theoretical results and demonstrate the low MAI and low energy features of wireless sensor network.


16. NON-BLIND ADAPTIVE BEAM FORMING ALGORITHMS FOR SMART ANTENNAS
by Usha Mallaparapu, K. Nalini, P. Ganesh , T. Raghavendra Vishnu, Prof. Habib Ullah Khan,D. Lakshmi Prasanna & B.T.P. Madhav
Abstract

The number of mobile users are increasing tremendously all over the world .It is necessary to increase the channel bandwidth and capacity and at the same time minimize the channel interference .Smart antennas are considered as an effective counter measure to achieve these requirements because they offer wide bandwidth, less electromagnetic interference, flexibility,  less weight, high speed, phase  control independent of frequency and low propagation loss .Smart antennas combine the antenna array with signal processing to optimize automatically the beam pattern in response to the received signal. Beam forming can be used for either radio or sound waves; it has found numerous applications in radar, sonar, seismology, wireless communications, radio astronomy, speech and biomedicine.This paper discuss about two non-blind beam forming algorithms i.e  Least Mean square(LMS) and  Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS) algorithms. The algorithms are compared using MATLAB.