Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 6, Issue 2 (February, 2011)

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1. A HYBRID POWER-PLANT TO MODERATE CARBON EMISSIONS
by F.S. Bhinder, R. Calay, Mohamad Y. Mustafa, S. Al-Zubaidy & A.E. Holdo
Abstract

Emissions of CO and CO2 are understood to be the main cause of global warming, melting of glaciers, heavy rain fall in some areas resulting in catastrophic floods and severe draughts in others. Introduction of national quotas is a political solution to limit carbon emissions; it cannot provide answers to a complex problem of climatic change. A permanent solution would require combustion free technologies for converting chemical energy of fuels directly into electricity. Fuel cells are highly efficient direct energy conversion devices; they have the true potential to reduce carbon emissions. This paper describes a conceptual hybrid power plant comprising a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a closed cycle gas turbine. A simple analysis of the plant has been carried out to demonstrate that significant gains can be made in reducing carbon emissions, increasing energy utilisation efficiency and minimising the impact of thermal loading on the environment.  


2. OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURE CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF XYLANASE IN SUBMERGE FERMENTATION BY PENICILLIUM CITRINUM USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

by Gargi Ghoshal, Ashwini Kamble, U.S. Shivhare & U.C. Banerjee

Abstract

In the present study Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the combined effect of relevant process variables to maximize the production of xylanase in submerge fermentation by Penicillium citrinum MTCC 2553. The process variables include pH (6.5, 7.0, and 7.5); temperature (25, 30, and 35°C); agitation speed (190, 200, and 210 rpm); and, substrate (xylan) concentration (0.70%, 0.75%, and 0.80%). A 24 factorial central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to obtain interaction between the process variables and optimizing these variables total 22 experiments were carried out in shake flask and a three dimensional response surface was generated to determine the effect of process variables on xylanase production. The optimal calculated values of tested variables for maximal production of xylanase were: pH 7.49, temperature 29°C, agitation speed 209 rpm, and substrate concentration of 0.75%. This approach for process parameter optimization yielded enhance xylanase activity by three - folds compared to the unoptimized media.


3. EFFECT OF RICE MILL WASTE WATER ON POPULATION, BIOMASS, RATE OF REPRODUCTION AND SECONDARY PRODUCTION OF DRAWIDA WILLSI (OLIGOCHAETA) IN RICE FIELD AGROECOSYSTEM
by Abanti Padhan & Sanjat K. Sahu
Abstract

The physicochemical characteristics of rice mill wastewater was measured prior to field experiment. The wastewater revealed an alkaline pH (8.0) with low concentration of DO (0.9 mgl-1), nitrate (0.5 mg l-1), phosphate (21 mg l-1) and sulphate (40 mg l-1) and moderate concentration and COD (630 mg l-1), chloride (140 mg l-1) and TDS (670 mg l-1) and high concentration of total suspended solids (530 mg l-1) and BOD (450 mg l-1).  Moreover, the effluent was rich in sodium (235 mg l-1), total phenols (35 mg l-1) as well as silica (58 mg l-1). The field experiment was conducted during winter crop period extending from January until May 1998. On the basis of randomized block design method, four plots were identified as control plots and four plots as experimental plots. Jaya T90 variety of rice saplings having crop duration 120-130 days was cropped in all the plots. The control plots were irrigated with normal canal water of river the Mahanadi and the experimental plots were irrigated with the wastewater from the rice mill. The population, biomass, rate of reproduction and secondary production of a dominant crop field earthworm (Drawida willsi Michaelsen) was studied at fortnight intervals for 105 days. The population density of D.willsi of rice plots prior to irrigation was 41 m-2. The peak and average worm population showed 22.39 and 21.75% decline respectively in plots irrigated with rice mill wastewater compared to control. Population structure showed decrease in non-adult/adult ratio in experimental plots, indicating greater susceptibility of juvenile and immature worms to rice mill wastewater.  Significant difference in the cocoon production (46.61% decrease) and rate of reproduction (25.39 % decrease) was also noticed between control and experimental plots. The biomass and two components of secondary production (tissue production and tissue utilized in reproduction) showed 26.43 - 55.11% reduction in experimental plots over control plots during the study period. The significant reduction in population, reproduction, biomass and secondary production of D.willsi in experimental plots may be due to alkaline pH with higher content of phenols, silica, TSS , BOD, sodium and organic matter in the effluent. On the basis the above findings we suggest that rice mill wastewater should not be used as such for agricultural purpose. The treatment of the waste water be made to render the wastewater suitable for irrigation in agricultural lands.


4. ON PERIODIC AND OTHER SOLUTIONS OF A NONLINEAR THIRD-ORDER SYSTEM OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
by Alfred Huber
Abstract In this paper a rare studied nonlinear system of partial differential equations of the third order is under consideration. Actually, no concrete application of this special system is known. We believe, by the help of our new results, that we can close the gap between available results, profound knowledge and future fields of application. Although no extensive studies are known up to now a physical background of the considered system cannot be excluded in future. The main concern is devoted to derive periodic- and non-periodic classes of solutions.

5. TEMPORALLY DEPENDENT DISPERSION THROUGH SEMI-INFINITE HOMOGENEOUS POROUS MEDIA: AN ANALYTICAL SOLUTION
by R.R.Yadav, Dilip Kumar Jaiswal, Hareesh Kumar Yadav & Gulrana
Abstract

An analytical solution is obtained for two-dimensional dispersion through semi-infinite homogeneous porous medium. Point source concentration of pulse type is considered at the origin. Nature of pollutant is chemically non-reactive. Initially the domain is not solute free. The seepage velocities are considered exponentially decreasing function of time along both directions (longitudinal and lateral). Dispersion coefficient is assumed proportional to seepage velocity. First order decay is also considered which is proportional to dispersion coefficient. Laplace technique is used to obtain the analytical solution.


6. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF SUGAR MANUFACTURING PLANT USING BOOLEAN FUNCTION TECHNIQUE
by S.C. Agarwal, Deepika & Neha Sharma
Abstract

In this paper, an industrial problem related to sugar manufacturing plant for its reliability assessment by employing Boolean function technique is analyzed.

The sugar plant under consideration is a complex system which consists of various subsystems viz., feeding system, cane cutters, crushing system, fileration system, purifier, boilers and the mills. Reliability of sugar manufacturing plant is obtained in three different cases. Mean time to failure of the system has also been determined. A numerical illustration and its graphical representation have also been appended in the end to highlight important results.


7. ON AVERAGING METHOD FOR SOLUTION OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
by E.M. Roshdy
Abstract

This method is used to solve non linear differential equations with linear and non linear small dissipative terms and or with time dependent parameters examples also are given.


8. SLIP-FLOW HEAT TRANSFER IN CIRCULAR MICROCHANNEL WITH VISCOUS DISSIPATION
by Vahid Vandadi, Aref Vandadi & Cyrus Aghanajafi
Abstract

This paper presents an analytical solution for the Graetz problem extended to slip flow that includes rarefaction effect. The hydrodynamically developed flow is assumed to enter a circular microchannel with uniform wall temperature. The effect of velocity slip, temperature jump and viscous dissipation term are all considered. The effect of nondimensional parameters (Knudsen number, Prandtl number, Brinkman number) on local and fully developed Nusselt number is investigated. The results show that under certain conditions the viscous dissipation effect on heat transfer in microchannels is significant and should not be neglected. 


9. RAY BASED OFFSETTING TECHNIQUE FOR DISCRETISATION OF PLANER DOMAIN
by Shalendra Kumar & Satyajai Kumar
Abstract The paper deals with developing an algorithm, based on “Ray Based Offsetting” to generate triangular as well as quadrilateral mesh. The method begins by decomposing the region to be meshed into suitable sub-regions. A series of horizontal lines are introduced in each sub-region. The intersection points between domain boundary and rays (boundary node) are offset along the ray with suitable spacing (element size) for generating nodes on the ray. The entire sub-region gets segmented by the series of horizontal rays. By taking generated nodes on the rays as input, element generation of entire sub region is achieved by meshing one segment at a time and placing them one above other from bottom to top of the sub region. The resulting meshes of various sub regions are merged together to form the final mesh. The input data of the method include region boundary curve, element size and mesh refinement information. The Proposed technique is capable of meshing any typical geometry (simple as well as multiply connected complex regions). The meshing of the surfaces has been compared with other popular algorithms on the basis of key parameters i.e., element shape, no of element/nodes generated, processing time, etc. and the results are in good agreement.

10. THE IMPORTANCE OF DATA PROTECTION PROCESS IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES
by Omar Hassan Mohamed Saeed
Abstract

This title paper has a relation in some ways to the topic of (Managing Information Resources).This paper describes the new factors that have increased data protection risks; then demonstrate the small and midsize business's Data Protection hurt Points. It introduces some situations that if they happened, it will affect the business data; delay decision making process and by the result, it maybe interrupts the business for a period of time. Finally it introduce some recommended scientific and implemented advices according to IS and IT sciences for treating this problem and minimizing its effects in the small and midsize businesses.


11. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF GROUP TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM USING FUZZY LOGIC
by I.N. Askerzade & Mustafa Mahmud
Abstract

Describes how to compute the optimal extension time that will add to the fixed time control system. The system has been developed to simulate isolated traffic junction with respect to the situation of its backward and forward neighbours based on fuzzy logic. By using MATLAB (Fuzzy Logic Toolbox) we also show the simulation and the results obtained from the system.  A comparison can be made between this type of cooperative traffic junction and isolated traffic junction by using different fuzzy algorithms. Simulation results show that the fuzzy logic controller has better performance and is more cost effective.   


12. MEASURING BLOOD FLOW: TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS
by A.K. Jayanthy, N. Sujatha & M. Ramasubba Reddy
Abstract

An adequate amount of blood supply is necessary for the proper functioning of all body organs as blood carries all the nutrients and oxygen that our body needs to stay healthy. Various diseases cause an impaired supply of blood to the organs. The measurement of the blood flow can therefore provide essential information for the diagnosis of diseases. Since changes in blood flow occurs with the very initial stage of disease, with a fast, reliable and non-invasive blood flow measurement technique, the physicians would be provided with new options for early disease diagnosis. Beginning with brief overview of early methods of blood flow measurement, this article reviews the recent blood flow measuring techniques in detail and ends with suggestions for future research in related areas.  


13. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A HYBRID UNIFORM LENGTH AND UNIFORM SPACING ARRAY OF 7-ELEMENT FOLDED DIPOLE ANTENNA (HULUSA7FDA) OPERATING AT 900 – 2000MHz BAND.
by Alade Olusope Michael, Adewumi Adebayo Segun & Salawu Mufutau Abiodun
Abstract

In this paper, the design, implementation and experimental analysis of the performance of the proposed hybrid Uniform Length and Uniform Spacing Array of 7-element Folded Dipole Antenna (HULUSA7FDA)  operating at 900 – 2000MHz band for wireless communication networks particularly Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) are reported. The design techniques employed is the integration (hybrid) of the existing Log- periodic dipole array design parameters with K7MEM folded dipole online simulator and folded dipole feeder characteristics impedance matching online simulator. The data obtained during field experimentation were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed antenna in terms of its two major parameters which are the frequency responses and radiation patterns. The results obtained show that the proposed antenna demonstrates Chebyshev measured frequency responses, and highly directional measured radiation patterns over the desired wide bandwidth. The chosen gain for the design of the antenna is 7.5±0.1dBi and the computed beamwidth from the measured radiation patterns is 15±0.10.


14. INVESTIGATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE WITHIN CAMPUS 2,DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY, ABRAKA, NIGERIA
by Oseji Julius Otutu
Abstract

Noise pollution studies have been carried out within Campus 2 of Delta State University, Abraka using a digital sound level meter of type 2 model 1EC651. Noise measurements were taken from 22 locations within the campus during working hours as from 8.00am and after working hours as from 4.30 pm. The noise levels from each of these locations were taken four times each at a period (time) of ten minutes interval before the average and percentages were calculated.

The result indicate that the average noise level of 87 dB in campus 2 is mostly generated by the business centers as a result of the electricity generated from different power plants, which is attributed to the frequent power failures by the Power Holdings of Nigeria. In addition, offices using small generators from a pole interval to another with voices in and out contribute a lot to the noisy environment. The measured noise levels when compare with the exposure limits of 75 dB summarized by Prof Klostertettle Basternier as recommended by both WHO, 1980 and FEPA, 1991 calls for urgent need in employing control strategies.


15. SURFACE GEOELECTRIC SOUNDING FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AQUIFER CHARACTERISTICS IN ABOH AND ENVIRONS DELTA STATE
by Oseji Julius Otutu
Abstract

Vertical electrical sounding data were acquired from 10 locations evenly spread within Aboh town and environs.  Interpretations of the data reveale that two layers of near surface aquifer were identified in Aboh and environs. The first layer is shallow, but the filling of the pore spaces with overlying fine-grained and clayey sand formation have reduced the efficiency of this layer.

The second layer is the best and of very good quantity of groundwater. It is therefore recommended that boreholes for sustainable water supply should be drilled to a depth of between 40.00 m – 55.00 m within Aboh and environs. This value should not be exceeded at Okpai-Oluchi because of the confining bed or brackish water formation in the fifth geoelectric layer. Furthermore, apart from Okpai-Oluchi that seems to have a confining bed below the second aquifer, the aquifer in Aboh, Igbuku, Okpai-Oluchi and Beneku are semi-confined or leaky while Ashaka has an unconfined aquifer. Appreciable quantity of groundwater could be obtained in Ashaka followed by Beneku, Igbuku, Okpai-Oluchi and Aboh in a Descending order. The low values of the root mean square 1.4% - 2.6% signify the accuracy of the data obtained from the field. The VES interpretation correlates well with the information obtained from borehole litho logic log.













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