Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 6, Issue 1 (January, 2011)

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1. ALGEBRAIC APPROACHES FOR SOLVING TIME-DEPENDENT ELECTROCHEMICAL INTERFACES
by Alfred Huber
Abstract

Recently we introduced a nonlinear partial differential equation (nPDE) of the third order for the first time. This new model equation allows the extension of the Debye-Hückel Theory (DHT) considering time dependence explicitly. This also leads to a new formulation in the meaning of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann Equation (nPBE) and therefore we call it the modified Poisson-Boltzmann Equation (mPBE).

The purpose of the present paper is to analyze the new model equation by an alternative algebraic method without using any approximations and numerical methods. It is shown that the equation is not integrable completely in the sense of the Painlevé-property.

Thus we show how we can integrate this highly nPDE by algebraic procedures leading to new classes of solutions importantly in electrochemical and related applications.

2. AN INVENTORY MODEL FOR WEIBULL DETERIORATING ITEMS WITH PERMISSIBLE DELAY IN PAYMENTS UNDER INFLATION

by U.K. Misra, S.K. Sahu, Bhaskar Bhaula & L.K. Raju

Abstract

This paper derives an optimal inventory replenishment policy for two parameters Weibull deteriorating items with a permissible delay in payment under   inflation over finite planning horizon. The theoretical results reflected in this paper is also studied through numerical examples and sensitivity analysis.


3. CERTAIN INVESTIGATIONS REGARDING VARIABLE PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
by Amritbir Singh, R.K. Mishra & Sukhjit Singh
Abstract

In this paper, we have investigated details regarding variable physical & cosmological constants mainly G, c, h, α, NA, e & Λ. It is easy to see that the constancy of G & c is consistent, provided that all actual variations from experiment to experiment, or method to method, are due to some truncation or inherent error. It has also been noticed that physical constants may fluctuate, within limits, around average values which themselves remain fairly constant. Several attempts have been made to look for changes in Plank’s constant by studying the light from quasars and stars assumed to be very distant on the basis of the red shift in their spectra. Detail Comparison of concerned research done has been done in the present paper.


4. A MAX-MIN ANT SYSTEM TO MINIMIZE TOTAL TARDINESS ON A SINGLE MACHINE WITH SEQUENCE DEPENDENT SETUP TIMES IMPLEMENTING A LIMITED BUDGET LOCAL SEARCH
by Nabeel Mandahawi, Sameh Al-Shihabi & Safwan Altarazi
Abstract

Given the anticipated benefits of better solutions, the scheduling problem of minimizing the total tardiness for single machine with sequence dependent setup times continues to represent a challenge for researchers to resolve. This research presents a novel Max-Min Ant System (MMAS) algorithm for solving this problem. The MMAS algorithm adopts a new local search technique where, a position is randomly chosen from the jobs' sequence and the job located at this position is either interchanged with other jobs or another job from the sequence is inserted in this position. The best move is chosen and the algorithm is repeated. The new algorithm has been tested on a number of benchmark problems for both the weighted and the unweighted tardiness and the experimental results show that the algorithm can reach better results on most of the cases.   


5. HIGH-ORDER ACCURATE SPECTRAL DIFFERENCE METHOD FOR SHALLOW WATER EQUATIONS
by Omer San & Kursat Kara
Abstract

The conservative high-order accurate spectral difference method is presented for simulation of rotating shallow-water equations. The method is formulated using Lagrange interpolations on Gauss-Lobatto points for the desired order of accuracy without suffering numerical dissipation and dispersion errors. The optimal third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta algorithm is used for the time marching process. The Godunov-type method by solving the Riemann problem approximately using Roe's technique is utilized at the element interfaces to couple the discontinuous element together at that point. Some 1D and 2D shallow water wave propagation problems with Gaussian shaped water drops are simulated and compared for different order constrictions of spectral difference method. The results from the second-order central difference scheme and the Lax-Wendroff scheme are also included for comparison purposes. The results show that spectral difference method is a good numerical tool for accurate simulation of shallow water equations without suffering the dispersive or dissipative errors and provides an alternative to other high-order accuracy methods in terms of efficiency.


6. APPLICATION OF HOMOTOPY PERTURBATION METHOD ON SOME LINEAR AND NONLINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS
by R. Taghipour
Abstract

In this paper, the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) which doesn’t small parameter is applied to solve the linear and nonlinear parabolic equations. The HPM deforms a difficult problem into a simple problem which can be easily solved. It is implemented with appropriate initial conditions. Comparison of the applied methods with exact solutions reveals that the method is tremendously effective.


7. THE EFFECT OF L/D RATIO ON THE TEMPERATURE SEPARATION IN THE COUNTERFLOW VORTEX TUBE
by Nader Pourmahmoud & Abdol Reza Bramo
Abstract

In this numerical study, performance of Ranque-Hilsch vortex tubes, with a length to diameter ratios (L/D) of 8, 9.3, 10.5, 20.2, 30.7, and 35 with six straight nozzles, on the basis of available experimental results were investigated. Also, this study has been done to understanding the physical behavior of the flow field in the vortex tube. CFD analysis is employed to achieve the highest temperature separation and optimum length to diameter (L/D) ratio of the Ranque–Hilsch vortex tubes. The temperature separation phenomenon in the vortex tube has been obtained by a 3D compressible turbulent CFD model. Also it was found that the best performance was obtained when the ratio of vortex tube’s length to the diameter was 9.3. Moreover, it is found that increasing the cold mass fraction decreases the cold temperature difference and efficiency. Finally the computed results such as velocity and temperature variations are presented and discussed in more details. Presented results in this paper shown good agreement with experimental results.


8. SINGULARITY ANALYSIS OF A 3-RRRR REDUNDANT SPHERICAL PARALLEL MANIPULATOR
by Soheil Zarkandi & Mohammad Reza Esmaili
Abstract

Study of parallel manipulators highlights the importance of identifying singular configurations (singularities) during the design, and of avoiding them during the operation; because in these configurations the instantaneous kinematics of the manipulator becomes indeterminate. This paper focuses on the determination of singular configurations of a kinematically redundant 3-RRRR spherical parallel manipulator while R and R denote the actuated and unactuated revolute joints respectively. Also it is shown how redundancy can help to avoid these singularities.


9. AN INVESTIGATION FOR GENERATION OF ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES FOR SPONGE IRON PLANTS USING PROCESS INTEGRATION PRINCIPLES
by Anil Kumar Prasad, Radha Kumar Prasad & Shabina Khanam
Abstract

During the operation, a tremendous amount of heat is generated in the coal based sponge iron plant and a significant part of this heat associated with the waste gas, remains unutilized. While utilizing this heat in the process the energy demand of the process may be reduced, which decreases the coal consumption as coal is the only source of energy in this plant. Further, it is seen that existing plant consumes 5.57 times more energy than theoretical value. This information advocates the basic motivation of the present study. To utilize the heat associated with waste gas pinch analysis is applied on the actual data of plant and identified three feasible cases for energy conservation. For these cases capital investment required for retrofitting as well as total profit in terms of coal and water saving are compared and best design is selected. The best design includes preheating of air as well as feed material to rotary kiln and cooling of kiln outlet using waste gas. It consumes 12.5% less coal in comparison to existing system. The payback period of the best design is 56 days only. This design also satisfies the practical conditions of the process.


10. DIGITAL WATERMARKINGA TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
by Hebah H.O. Nasereddin
Abstract

The paper introduces the digital watermarking technology which is a data hiding technique that embeds a message into a multimedia work such as an image or text or other digital object. The proposed technique has several important applications; the majorly important is the digital copyrights protection. The digital watermarking system as any other data hiding technique has its own requirements that make the digital watermark strong as possible.

Technologies of digital watermarking are mainly classified depending on their domain to spatial domain watermarks, Watermarks belonging to frequency (transform) domain and wavelet domain watermarks. The digital watermarks suffer from different types of attacks that include either state-of-the-art watermarking attacks or watermark estimation attacks. The recovery from these attacks requires strong detection techniques; the digital watermark agent provides a professional solution for these attacks. The paper also mentions a new paradigm in digital watermarking that is 3d objects watermarking.

11. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AS AN ANALYTICAL TOOL FOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND ASPECT RATIO ANALYSIS OF CIPROFLOXACIN MUCOADHESIVE POLYMERIC SUSPENSION
by Subhashree Sahoo, Chandra Kanti Chakraborti, Subash Chandra Mishra & Upendra Nath Nanda
Abstract

Two types of mucoadhesive suspension of Ciprofloxacin were formulated by taking Carbopol934 and Carbopol940 polymers. The morphologies and mechanical properties of the resultant formulations were investigated. The dispersion of particle was observed using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The particle size distribution (PSD) and aspect ratio (AR) of particles in the polymeric suspension were obtained from SEM image analysis. It was found that SEM imaging displays directly the micron level dispersion of particles in polymeric formulation. The technique has significant potential for characterizing such formulation, having some advantages over ‘traditional’ transmission electron microscopy in terms of generating representative data in a realistic timescale. Considering graphical analysis, the maximum particle size range for formulation containing Cipro and C934 is between 10 and 15 µm but in case of Cipro and C940, it is 5 to 10 µm.  In the rod-like particles whose shapes are characterized by the two major and minor lengths of the particle, the length/width ratios are satisfactorily consistent with the aspect ratio value evaluated from the instrumental measurements. Formulation containing Cipro and C934 is more stable because it has lesser standard deviation and co-efficient of variation in aspect ratio analysis. The PSD and AR distribution and degree of dispersion in the formulation give insights into the modification of mechanical properties of the mucoadhesive formulation studied.


12. PEAK TO AVERAGE POWER RATIO REDUCTION USING BANDWIDTH EFFICIENCY INCREASING METHOD IN OFDM SYSTEM
by A.A. Abdul Wahab & M.F. Ain
Abstract

An efficient scheme to reduce peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of OFDM signal is presented, which introduces bandwidth efficiency increasing method to OFDM. In other words the spacing of the sub-carriers in this new method is twice as dense when compared to conventional OFDM system.  In this new method the frequency separation of the sub-carriers is halved compared to the conventional OFDM. It is evident from simulation results that the new technique has significantly reduced the PAPR for high data rate systems. This improvement in the systems performances have been maintained even when different combination modulation scheme and number of subcarrier were used. Using statistical hypotheses testing with confidence level 95%, we have sufficient evidence that the proposed method is better than the conventional OFDM system.


13. SEASONAL VARIATION OF RADON GAS CONCENTRATION IN THE WATERS OF SHANDIZ
by A. Binesh, S. Mohammadi, A.A. Mowlavi & P. Parvaresh
Abstract

Radon gas with chemical symbol Rn222 is the heaviest element radioactivity, colorless, odorless, tasteless, heavy and noble. Radon naturally in rocks and soils and waters is available and because there is no affinity to plead easily by soil and water molecules into the air and is moving. Radon enters the body with breathing, eating and drinking. Alpha, which is emitted from radon and other nuclear radiations, sent by its daughters nucleus, serious damage to human respiratory and gastrointestinal system brings, so after smoking, the second risk factor in lung cancer is radon radiation. Radon gas density varies due to factors such as temperature, air pressure, humidity and changes in ground layers. As a result, radon gas densities in the seasons are different. In this research, water radon concentration of 10 point Shandiz area in different seasons of the year with the help PRASSI system is measured. Fortunately, the results show that only two samples of drinking water are higher than normal density Bq / l 11.1 in the fall.


14. DETERMINATION OF SELF/MUTUAL IMPEDANCE AND VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTIONS OF 8dBi MODIFIED DRIVEN ARRAY OF DIPOLES ANTENNA AT UHF/L BAND USING HYBRID FREQUENCY DOMAIN MOMENT METHOD
by Alade Olusope Michael, Akande Stephen Funso & Amalu Paul Chigbo
Abstract

The analyses of self and mutual impedances and voltage distributions of 8dBi Modified Driven Array of Dipoles Antenna at UHF/L (850 – 1150MHz) band using hybrid frequency domain moment method have been presented in this paper. The results of the analyses indicated that the currents distributions lead the voltages distributions in the proposed antenna, and the antenna has the ability to dissipate little or no energy loss as heat, all the energy received by the antenna will be expended as radiation resistance. The antenna’s voltages distributions reached the maximum peak values at 1000MHz and 1150MHz resonant frequencies. The analyses also confirmed the supreme performance of the dipole antenna array as compare to the single element dipole antenna in agreement with the previous work by other scientists and engineers. Here, the peak values  (maximum of 80±0.1mV and minimum of 70±0.1mV) reached by the voltages distributions of the proposed antenna array are much greater than that of the individual dipole element of the antenna (maximum of 13±0.1mV and minimum of 6.5±0.1mV) at the same resonant frequencies of 1000MHz and 1150MHz. The computed Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) is ~1.0 at the frequency band of consideration, and the bandwidth is ±10% of the resonant frequency which doubles ±5% of the individual dipole element of the proposed antenna array at the same resonant frequency.














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