Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 5, Issue 2 (November, 2010)

To read and print the PDF files of the Journal Archive you will need to have Acrobat Reader.
 If you have any technical or content problems contact : publisher@arpapress.com

1. A TWO-ORDER AND TWO-SCALE COMPUTATION METHOD OF DAMAGE IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS
by Fang Su, Zhan Xu, Junzhi Cui & Qiaoli Dong
Abstract

This paper is aimed at developing a multi-scale analysis for obtaining numerical approximate solution to a boundary value problem describing damage phenomena in a brittle composite material. The multi-scale analysis based on mathematical homogenization is generalized to account for damage effects in heterogeneous media, and the stress update process is given. Numerical results of our model are found to be effective.


2. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PARTICULATE FROM THE COMBUSTION OF COAL OIL AND C-HEAVY FUEL

by Kartika Kus Hendratna , Osami Nishida, Hirotsugu Fujita, Wataru Harano & Dong-Hong Yoo

Abstract

This study discusses the characteristics of particulate emission for the combustion of coal fuel and heavy fuel oil. Combustion process was set up in a laboratory scale experiment on a 2.75 m horizontal boiler with four annular segment tubes, a water jacket system, and a measurement system for remaining particulate from the combustion.  Four sampling points at 60 cm, 110 cm, 160 cm, and 210 cm from the centre of the boiler were used to obtain the data. The particulate was collected by using filtering method with Poly-tetra flour ethylene (PTFE) coated composite filter. The concentration of dry soot and soluble organic fractions are measured based on the data from samplings. The soluble organic fractions that derived from unburned hydrocarbon were identified using dichloromethane. From this study, the steady combustion of coal oil was achieved and the combustion of coal fuel produced more particulate than the heavy oil. It also concludes that the Application of coal oil as the substitute of the heavy oil still can be a consideration without ignoring the impact to the environment.


3. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ON SOLIDIFICATION, MICROSTRUCTURE AND HARDNESS OF Co-Cr-W-Ni and Co Cr Mo-Ni ALLOY SYSTEMS
by R. Liu, S.Q. Xi, S. Kapoor & X.J. Wu
Abstract

This article presents a study of solidification behavior and associate microstructure as well as hardness of Co-Cr-W-Ni and Co-Cr-Mo-Ni alloy systems. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique is employed to determine the transformation temperatures of these alloys. The focus is on investigating the effects of each constituent of the alloys on their solidification behavior and associate microstructures. The hardness values of these alloys are also determined using a Wilson Series 2000 Rockwell Hardness Tester. It is found that chemical composition influences the solidification behavior, associate microstructures and hardness of cobalt-based alloys significantly. Carbon content dominates the solidification behavior of these alloys when the contents of the solution‑strengthening elements Mo and Ni are within their saturation in the solution matrix. However, as the contents of Mo and Ni reach a certain level, formation of intermetallic compounds changes the solidification behavior of these alloys remarkably. The presence of boron greatly decreases the solidification temperature. The volume fraction of carbides, Laves phase and other intermetallic compounds in the microstructure determines the hardness of the alloys.


4. ENHANCEMENT OF NATURAL CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER ON VERTICAL HEATED PLATE BY MULTIPLE V-FIN ARRAY
by M.J. Sable, S.J. Jagtap, P.S. Patil, P.R. Baviskar & S.B. Barve
Abstract

Natural  convection from vertical surfaces with large surface element is encountered in several technological applications of particular interest of heat dissipation from electronic circuit. Natural convection represents an inherently reliable cooling process. Because of boundary layer development, the tall  vertical fins restrict the heat transfer enhancement.  .  This heat transfer enhancing technique was investigated for natural convection adjacent to a vertical heated plate  with a multiple v- type partition plates (fins) in ambient air surrounding.  As compared to conventional vertical fins, this v-type partition plates works not only as extended surface but also as flow turbulator.  In order to enhance the heat transfer, V-shaped partition plates (fins) with edges faced upstream were attached to the two identical vertical plates.  The mica gladded nichrome flat heating element was sandwiched in between these two base plates.  It is supplied with stabilized A.C.supply.  The electrical heat input was controlled through dimmer stat and measured using a wattmeter.  The V-type partition plates with two different heights were tried.  The heat transfer in the downstream  region of the partition plate is markedly enhanced when the plate height exceeds certain critical values because of  the  inflows of the low temperature fluid into the separation region.  It was observed that among the three different fin array configurations on vertical heated plate, V-type fin array design performs better than rectangular vertical fin array and V-fin array with bottom spacing design. The performance was observed to improve further, with increase in the height of the V-plates (fin height).


5. CHANGES IN SEGMENTAL DYNAMICS OF ISOPRENE IN STYRENE-ISOPRENE BLOCK COPOLYMERS UPON ELONGATION PROBED BY SOLID STATE CARBON NMR RELAXATION TIME MEASUREMENTS
by Minje Xue, Qun Chen, Eddy Walther Hansen & Jie Shu
Abstract

The segmental motion of isoprene within styrene–isoprene tri-block (SIS) copolymers (14 wt% and 22 wt% styrene) is reported as a function of elongation at three different temperatures (293K, 303K and 313K) using carbon solid state NMR spin-spin (T2) and spin-lattice (T1) relaxation time measurements. The results show that after a sample elongation by a factor of approximately 4, the segmental mobility decreases by a factor of 2 – 3. Also, the segmental mobility reveals a temperature behaviour which is strongly dependent on the relative amount of styrene within the styrene-isoprene tri-block polymers. The activation energy of the segmental motion is further discussed with respect to the B-parameter in the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) Equation; log(t/t0) = B/(T-T0), where t is the segmental correlation time at the (absolute) temperature T.    


6. RANK-BASED DATA GATHERING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
by Jeremy Bouldin & Natarajan Meghanathan
Abstract

We propose a Rank-Based Data Gathering (RBDG) algorithm for wireless sensor networks with randomly distributed sensor nodes. For every round of dasta communication, the algorithm functions as follows:  A set of sensor nodes or vertices are assigned a random rank between 0 and 1. A link is formed between any two nodes if they are within each other’s transmission range. If a sensor node has the highest rank among it neighbors, then it is considered an associate node, else it is categorized as a leaf node. Next, we form a complete graph among the associate nodes with edge weights representing the physical Euclidean distance between the nodes. We run a minimum spanning tree algorithm on this complete graph and transform it to a rooted directed data gathering tree with the root being the sensor node with the highest residual energy. We also developed an energy-efficient version of the rank-based data gathering algorithm (EE-RBDG) wherein the rank of a node is the sum of the random number (between 0 to 1) assigned for the node and the fraction (also from 0 to 1) of the initial energy currently available at the node. Simulation results indicate that the E-RBDG algorithm performs better than the RBDG and other well-known data gathering algorithms with respect to network lifetime, delay and energy*delay per round.


7. USING GENETIC ALGORITHM IN NETWORK SECURITY
by Ehab Talal Abdel-Ra'of Bader & Hebah H.O. Nasereddin
Abstract

The paper talks about using Genetic Algorithm (GA) in Network Security. Specially, it describes a technique of applying GA to network Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs). GA is one of the commonly used approaches on data mining. The paper puts forward a GA approach for classification problems. It presents a brief overview of the Intrusion Detection System, GA, and related detection techniques. Parameters and evolution process for GA are discussed in detail. About the other implementations of the same problem, this implementation considers both temporal and spatial information of network connections in encoding the network connection information into rules in Intrusion Detection Systems. This help for identification of complex anomalous behaviors. This work is focused on the TCP/IP network protocols that applying GA.  

8. NUMERICAL STUDY OF CONVECTION –DIFFUSION PROBLEM IN TWO- DIMENSIONAL SPACE
by K. Sharath Babu & N. Srinivasacharyulu
Abstract

The convection-diffusion problem in two-dimensional space is solved on a unit square mesh with the prescribed boundary conditions by finite difference method where in central difference scheme is employed. In the process finite difference scheme of Standard five point formula was employed.  . Initial approximations to temperature distribution function were given on the basis suitable to physical nature of the problem by intuition.  The results thus obtained are plotted through graphs and the physical nature of the problem is discussed.  It is observed that there is a boundary layer at the specific values of arguments.

9. ON THE LOCAL PROPERTY OF SUMMABILITY OF A FACTORED FOURIER SERIES
by U.K. Misra, Mahendra Misra, B.P. Padhy & S.K. Buxi
Abstract

In this paper we have established a theorem on the local property of summability of factored Fourier


10. A NOTE ON HADAMARD INEQUALITIES FOR THE PRODUCT OF THE CONVEX FUNCTIONS
by Sahin Emrah Amrahov
Abstract

The main aim of the present note is to prove new Hadamard like integral  inequalities for the product of the convex functions.


11. PD PATTERNS RECOGNITION IN XLPE CABLE UNDER VARIOUS THERMAL CONDITIONS USING STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE
by Muhamad Mansor, Prodipto Sankar Ghosh & Ahmad Basri Abdul Ghani
Abstract

Condition monitoring of partial discharge (PD) has become a preferred method in the design of HV apparatus. Power cable is one of the HV apparatus affected by PD activity. Although, the phenomenon of PD in power cables are well known, the effect of soil thermodynamics on PD is not yet well established. Thus, an experiment has been carried out to assess the effect of soil thermal resistivity on various PD parameters at different temperatures. Cable sample studied is an 11kV, single core, 240mm2 XLPE cable. Classification is firstly carried out using the conventional method “Recognition Rate”. A proposed method, which is called “Hitting Pattern”, is then introduced to overcome the limitation of “Recognition Rate”. Classification using “Hitting Pattern” emphasises on the patterns of discharge, which is not considered by the “Recognition Rate”. These two techniques are developed with the help of 27 statistical parameters, so called “classifiers”, which are calculated using PD Analyzer Programme developed in-house. The values of classifiers of standard physical condition are used to classify PD patterns of non-standard physical conditions. The authors have also discussed about the simplified version of “Recognition Rate”, which is called “Fingerprint”, for the easier observation purposes.


12. PREDICTION OF SEISMIC TORSIONAL EFFECTS IN TALL SYMMETRIC BUILDINGS
by C. Justine Jose, T.P. Somasundaran & V. Mustafa
Abstract

The investigations conducted in this study of earthquake response of tall symmetric buildings are based on the observation that these structures share many important dynamic properties.   Earlier these types of studies were not reported much due to the lack of computational facilities.  Introduction of reliable and widely recognised computer tools changed the situation to a great extend. The present work begins by quantifying the similarities and differences in equivalent static method and response spectrum method of tall regular building analysis under fundamental period and torsional period based on Indian seismic code provisions.  Design moments of columns and roof displacements are taken as the parameters of the study.  From the present investigation of three dimensional static and dynamic analyses, it is observed that torsional period excitations are significant than the fundamental period and those effects started from law raised buildings even for regular structures.  Shortfall of the Indian seismic code provisions in this area is observed.  Guidelines and design tools are prepared based on the study which helps to a better understanding of the torsional behaviour of tall symmetric structures.


13. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PREVENTION OF REINFORCEMENT CORROSION IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES
by Aritra Khan & Tata Satya Teja
Abstract

Due to rapid urbanization all over the world, there is a necessity to construct and use concrete structures with reinforcement of steel viz. high rise buildings, tunnels, railway sleepers, bridges, turbo generator foundations, nuclear power plants, dams, reservoirs etc.

Corrosion of embedded steel of the pre-stressed concrete structure is a universal problem and has revived scientific attention during the last few decades. In general the loss of alkalinity of concrete caused by the entry of carbon dioxide leads to the corrosion of reinforcement, if moisture and oxygen are present. Many developments regarding to physical properties of embedded metal and the concrete have come up. However, regular monitoring of the health of concrete structure has become a very complicated task, because of the intricate and sophisticated design of structures and use of complicated instruments, the interpretation of data requires specialized knowledge. Here an attempt has been made to visualize the “surface-state of the steel embedded in concrete concast, though the interpretation of potential-time data, potential being recorded routinely. Some easily available common materials have been used to see their performance on the potential development at the metal solution interface-Polystyrene, red oxide, black Japan and aluminum paint have been examined. Bond strength between reinforcement and concrete is also taken into consideration while using paint as an anticorrosive material.

Red oxide has been tested as a concrete admixture. Chemicals like sodium Hexa-meta phosphate (HMP) and calcium chloride have been tested for their positive and negative behavior of the maintenance/deterioration of stable potential.


14. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HOT BUOYANT SUPPLY AIR JET IN A ROOM WITH DIFFERENT OUTLETS
by Shobha Lata Sinha
Abstract

In this investigation control-volume method has been used for simulating the indoor air flow using Lam-Bremhorst low-Reynolds-number k-ε turbulence model. The flow is considered to be steady, two-dimensional and the Boussinesq’s approximation has been used for the buoyancy term. The resulting non-linear system of momentum, energy, turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation equations have been solved on a non-uniform grid by SIMPLE algorithm due to Patankar and SIMPLEC algorithm due to Doormaal et al.. The Power law scheme has been used to discretise the convective/diffusion terms.

The distributions of velocity, temperature, turbulent kinetic energy, and dissipation of kinetic energy in the room have been presented for Reynolds number of 7× 10 3and for Grashof number up to 107 ( ∆T = 10 0C ) for different locations of inlet and outlet. The inlet air is assumed to be at higher temperature than the walls. It has been observed that  flow pattern changes considerably as Gr increases.