
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076734X, EISSN: 20767366
Volume 5, Issue 2 (November, 2010)
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1. 
A TWOORDER AND TWOSCALE COMPUTATION METHOD OF DAMAGE IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS 
by Fang Su, Zhan Xu, Junzhi Cui & Qiaoli Dong 
Abstract 
This paper is
aimed at
developing a multiscale analysis for obtaining numerical
approximate solution to a boundary value problem describing damage phenomena in a brittle composite
material. The multiscale analysis
based on mathematical
homogenization is generalized
to account for damage effects in heterogeneous
media, and the stress update process is given. Numerical results of our model are found to be effective.



2. 
CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PARTICULATE FROM
THE COMBUSTION OF COAL OIL AND CHEAVY FUEL 
by Kartika Kus Hendratna , Osami Nishida, Hirotsugu Fujita, Wataru Harano & DongHong Yoo

Abstract 
This
study discusses the characteristics of particulate emission for the combustion of
coal fuel and heavy fuel oil. Combustion process was set up in a laboratory scale
experiment
on a 2.75 m horizontal boiler with four annular segment tubes, a water jacket system,
and a measurement system for remaining particulate from the combustion. Four sampling points at 60 cm, 110 cm,
160 cm, and 210 cm from the centre of the boiler were used to obtain the data. The
particulate was collected by using filtering method with Polytetra flour ethylene (PTFE)
coated composite filter. The concentration of dry soot and soluble organic fractions
are measured based on the data from samplings. The soluble organic fractions that
derived from unburned hydrocarbon were identified using dichloromethane. From this
study, the steady combustion of coal oil was achieved and the combustion of coal
fuel produced more particulate than the heavy oil. It also concludes that the Application
of coal oil as the substitute of the heavy oil still can be a consideration
without ignoring the impact to the environment.



3. 
EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ON SOLIDIFICATION, MICROSTRUCTURE AND HARDNESS OF CoCrWNi and Co Cr MoNi ALLOY SYSTEMS 
by R. Liu, S.Q. Xi, S. Kapoor & X.J. Wu 
Abstract 
This article presents a study of solidification behavior
and associate microstructure as well as hardness of CoCrWNi and CoCrMoNi alloy
systems. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique is employed to determine
the transformation temperatures of these alloys. The focus is on investigating the
effects of each constituent of the alloys on their solidification behavior and associate
microstructures. The hardness values of these alloys are also determined using a
Wilson Series 2000 Rockwell Hardness Tester. It is found that
chemical composition influences the solidification behavior, associate microstructures
and hardness of cobaltbased alloys significantly.
Carbon content dominates the solidification behavior of these alloys
when the contents of the solution‑strengthening elements
Mo and Ni are within their saturation in the solution matrix. However, as the contents
of Mo and Ni reach a certain level, formation of intermetallic compounds
changes the solidification behavior of these alloys remarkably.
The presence of boron greatly decreases the solidification
temperature. The volume fraction of carbides, Laves phase and other intermetallic
compounds in the microstructure determines the hardness of the alloys.



4. 
ENHANCEMENT OF NATURAL CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER ON VERTICAL HEATED PLATE BY MULTIPLE VFIN ARRAY 
by M.J. Sable, S.J. Jagtap, P.S. Patil, P.R. Baviskar & S.B. Barve 
Abstract 
Natural convection
from vertical surfaces with large surface element is encountered in several technological
applications of particular interest of heat dissipation from electronic circuit.
Natural convection represents an inherently reliable cooling process. Because of
boundary layer development, the tall
vertical fins restrict the heat transfer enhancement.
. This heat transfer enhancing
technique was investigated for natural convection adjacent to a vertical heated
plate with a multiple v type partition
plates (fins) in ambient air surrounding.
As compared to conventional vertical fins, this vtype partition plates works not
only as extended surface but also as flow turbulator.
In order to enhance the heat transfer, Vshaped partition plates (fins) with
edges faced upstream were attached to the two identical vertical plates.
The mica gladded nichrome flat heating element was sandwiched in between
these two base plates. It is supplied
with stabilized A.C.supply. The electrical
heat input was controlled through dimmer stat and measured using a wattmeter. The Vtype partition plates with two
different heights were tried. The heat
transfer in the downstream region of
the partition plate is markedly enhanced when the plate height exceeds certain critical
values because of the
inflows of the low temperature fluid into the separation region.
It was observed that among the three different fin array configurations on
vertical heated plate, Vtype fin array design performs better than rectangular
vertical fin array and Vfin array with bottom spacing design. The performance was
observed to improve further, with increase in the height of the Vplates (fin height).



5. 
CHANGES IN SEGMENTAL DYNAMICS OF ISOPRENE IN STYRENEISOPRENE BLOCK COPOLYMERS UPON ELONGATION
PROBED BY SOLID STATE CARBON NMR RELAXATION TIME MEASUREMENTS 
by Minje Xue, Qun Chen, Eddy Walther Hansen & Jie Shu 
Abstract 
The segmental motion
of isoprene within styrene–isoprene triblock (SIS) copolymers (14 wt% and 22 wt%
styrene) is reported as a function of elongation at three
different temperatures (293K, 303K and 313K) using carbon solid state NMR spinspin
(T_{2}) and spinlattice (T_{1}) relaxation time measurements. The
results show that after a sample elongation by a factor of approximately 4, the
segmental mobility decreases by a factor of 2 – 3. Also, the segmental mobility
reveals a temperature behaviour which is strongly dependent on the relative amount
of styrene within the styreneisoprene triblock polymers. The activation energy
of the segmental motion is further discussed with respect to the Bparameter in
the VogelTammannFulcher (VTF) Equation; log(t/t_{0}) = B/(TT_{0}), where
t is the
segmental correlation time at the (absolute) temperature T.



6. 
RANKBASED DATA GATHERING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 
by Jeremy Bouldin & Natarajan Meghanathan 
Abstract 
We propose a RankBased Data Gathering (RBDG)
algorithm for wireless sensor networks with randomly distributed sensor nodes. For
every round of dasta communication, the algorithm functions as follows:
A set of sensor nodes or vertices are assigned a random rank between 0 and
1. A link is formed between any two nodes if
they are within each other’s transmission
range. If a sensor node has the highest rank among it neighbors, then it is considered
an associate node, else it is categorized as a leaf node. Next, we form a complete
graph among the associate nodes with edge weights representing the physical Euclidean
distance between the nodes. We run a minimum spanning tree algorithm on this complete
graph and transform it to a rooted directed data gathering tree with the root being
the sensor node with the highest residual energy. We also developed an energyefficient
version of the rankbased data gathering algorithm (EERBDG) wherein the rank of
a node is the sum of the random number (between 0 to 1) assigned for the node and
the fraction (also from 0 to 1) of the initial energy currently available at the
node. Simulation results indicate that the ERBDG algorithm performs better than
the RBDG and other wellknown data gathering algorithms with respect to network
lifetime, delay and energy*delay per round.




7. 
USING GENETIC ALGORITHM IN NETWORK SECURITY 
by Ehab Talal AbdelRa'of Bader & Hebah H.O. Nasereddin 
Abstract 
The paper talks about using Genetic Algorithm (GA) in
Network Security. Specially, it describes a technique of applying GA to network
Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs). GA is one of the commonly used approaches on
data mining. The paper puts forward a GA approach for classification problems. It
presents a brief overview of the Intrusion Detection System, GA, and related detection
techniques. Parameters and evolution process for GA are discussed in detail. About
the other implementations of the same problem, this implementation considers both
temporal and spatial information of network connections in encoding the network
connection information into rules in Intrusion Detection Systems. This help for
identification of complex anomalous behaviors. This work is focused on the TCP/IP
network protocols that applying GA.



8. 
NUMERICAL STUDY OF CONVECTION –DIFFUSION PROBLEM IN TWO DIMENSIONAL SPACE 
by K. Sharath Babu & N. Srinivasacharyulu 
Abstract 
The convectiondiffusion problem in twodimensional space
is solved on a unit square mesh with the prescribed boundary conditions by finite
difference method where in central difference scheme is employed. In the process
finite difference scheme of Standard five point formula was employed.
. Initial approximations to temperature distribution function were given
on the basis suitable to physical nature of the problem by intuition.
The results thus obtained are plotted through graphs and the physical
nature of the problem is discussed.
It is observed that there is a boundary layer at the specific values of arguments.



9. 
ON THE LOCAL PROPERTY OF SUMMABILITY OF A FACTORED FOURIER SERIES 
by U.K. Misra, Mahendra Misra, B.P. Padhy & S.K. Buxi 
Abstract 
In this paper
we have established a theorem on the local property of
summability of factored Fourier



10. 
A NOTE ON HADAMARD INEQUALITIES FOR THE PRODUCT
OF THE CONVEX FUNCTIONS 
by Sahin Emrah Amrahov 
Abstract 
The main aim of the present note is to prove new Hadamard like
integral inequalities for the product
of the convex functions.



11. 
PD PATTERNS RECOGNITION IN XLPE CABLE UNDER VARIOUS THERMAL CONDITIONS USING STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE 
by Muhamad Mansor, Prodipto Sankar Ghosh & Ahmad Basri Abdul Ghani 
Abstract 
Condition monitoring of partial discharge (PD) has become a preferred
method in the design of HV apparatus. Power cable is one of the HV apparatus affected
by PD activity. Although, the phenomenon of PD in power cables are well known, the
effect of soil thermodynamics on PD is not yet well established. Thus, an experiment
has been carried out to assess the effect of soil thermal resistivity on various
PD parameters at different temperatures. Cable sample studied is an 11kV, single
core, 240mm^{2} XLPE cable. Classification is firstly carried out using
the conventional method “Recognition Rate”. A proposed method, which is called “Hitting
Pattern”, is then introduced to overcome the limitation of “Recognition Rate”. Classification
using “Hitting Pattern” emphasises on the patterns of discharge, which is not considered
by the “Recognition Rate”. These two techniques are developed with the help of 27
statistical parameters, so called “classifiers”, which are calculated using PD Analyzer
Programme developed inhouse. The values of classifiers of standard physical condition
are used to classify PD patterns of nonstandard physical conditions.
The authors have also discussed about the simplified version of “Recognition
Rate”, which is called “Fingerprint”, for the easier observation purposes.



12. 
PREDICTION OF SEISMIC TORSIONAL EFFECTS IN TALL SYMMETRIC BUILDINGS 
by C. Justine Jose, T.P. Somasundaran & V. Mustafa 
Abstract 
The investigations conducted in this study
of earthquake response of tall symmetric buildings are based on the observation
that these structures share many important dynamic properties.
Earlier these types of studies were not reported much due to the
lack of computational facilities. Introduction
of reliable and widely recognised computer tools changed the situation to a great
extend. The present work begins by quantifying the similarities and differences
in equivalent static method and response spectrum method of tall regular building
analysis under fundamental period and torsional period based on Indian seismic code
provisions. Design moments of columns
and roof displacements are taken as the parameters of the study.
From the present investigation of three dimensional static and dynamic analyses,
it is observed that torsional period excitations are significant than the fundamental
period and those effects started from law raised buildings even for regular structures. Shortfall of the Indian seismic code
provisions in this area is observed.
Guidelines and design tools are prepared based on the study which helps to a better
understanding of the torsional behaviour of tall symmetric structures.



13. 
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PREVENTION OF REINFORCEMENT CORROSION IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES 
by Aritra Khan & Tata Satya Teja 
Abstract 
Due to rapid urbanization all over the world, there is
a necessity to construct and use concrete structures with reinforcement of steel
viz. high rise buildings, tunnels, railway sleepers, bridges, turbo generator foundations,
nuclear power plants, dams, reservoirs
etc.
Corrosion of embedded steel of the prestressed concrete
structure is a universal problem and has revived scientific attention during the
last few decades. In general the loss of alkalinity of concrete caused by the entry
of carbon dioxide leads to the corrosion of reinforcement, if moisture and oxygen
are present. Many developments regarding to physical properties of embedded metal
and the concrete have come up. However, regular monitoring of the health of concrete
structure has become a very complicated task, because of the intricate and sophisticated
design of structures and use of complicated instruments, the interpretation of data
requires specialized knowledge. Here an attempt has been made to visualize the “surfacestate
of the steel embedded in concrete concast, though the interpretation of potentialtime
data, potential being recorded routinely. Some easily available common materials
have been used to see their performance on the potential development at the metal
solution interfacePolystyrene, red oxide, black Japan and aluminum paint have been
examined. Bond strength between reinforcement and concrete is also taken into consideration
while using paint as an anticorrosive material.
Red oxide has been tested as a concrete admixture. Chemicals
like sodium Hexameta phosphate (HMP) and calcium chloride have been tested for
their positive and negative behavior of the maintenance/deterioration of stable
potential.



14. 
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HOT BUOYANT SUPPLY AIR JET IN A ROOM WITH DIFFERENT OUTLETS 
by Shobha Lata Sinha 
Abstract 
In this investigation
controlvolume method has been used for simulating the indoor air flow using LamBremhorst
lowReynoldsnumber kε turbulence model. The flow is considered to be steady, twodimensional
and the Boussinesq’s approximation has been used for the buoyancy term. The resulting nonlinear system of momentum, energy, turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation
equations have been solved on a nonuniform grid by SIMPLE algorithm due to Patankar
and SIMPLEC algorithm due to Doormaal et al.. The Power law scheme has been used
to discretise the convective/diffusion terms.
The distributions
of velocity, temperature, turbulent kinetic energy, and dissipation of kinetic energy
in the room have been presented for Reynolds number of 7× 10 ^{3}and for
Grashof number up to 10^{7 }( ∆T
= 10
^{0}C
) for different locations of inlet and outlet. The inlet air is assumed to be at
higher temperature than the walls. It has been observed that
flow pattern changes considerably as Gr increases.


