Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 3, Issue 2 (May, 2010)

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1. ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEMS – MODELS, ALGORITHMS AND APPLICATIONS
by J.R.Al-Enezi, M.F.Abbod & S.Alsharhan
Abstract

Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) are computational paradigms that belong to the computational intelligence family and are inspired by the biological immune system. During the past decade, they have attracted a lot of interest from researchers aiming to develop immune-based models and techniques to solve complex computational or engineering problems. This work presents a survey of existing AIS models and algorithms with a focus on the last five years.


2. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME CONTROLLED STRUCTURE THERMOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYESTERS

by Malabika Talukdar & P.Ganga Raju Achary

Abstract

Four sequentially ordered co-polyesters have been synthesized. In order to preclude any possibility of sequence randomization, a typical plycondensation method has been developed to carry the reaction out at room temperature in presence of a phosphorilating agent. The method consisted of synthesis of a symmetric trimeric compound with a predesigned monomer sequence and its polymerization with a second monomer. The effect of reaction parameters for the synthesis of these polymers, viz. temperature, reaction time, monomer concentration and solvent, on the yield and molecular weight of the polymers have been studied by carrying out the polycondensation process under different reaction conditions. Qualitative structure analysis of the polymers has been carried out by FTIR spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) were adopted for thermal analysis of the polymers. Three dimensional molecular structures of the polymers were studied by Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) technique. Texture of liquid crystal polymers were identified by the photomicrographs obtained from optical microscopy. Mesomorphic nature of the polymers would be interpreted by a combination of WAXD and the thermal treatment of the polymers.


3. HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY FOR ELECTRO-OPTICS APPLICATIONS
by A.R.Tamuri, N.Bidin & Y.M.Daud
Abstract

This paper describes the development of high voltage power supply for electro-optics applications. The power supply consists of MOSFET driver, voltage multiplier circuit and voltage controller. A single timer 555 generates 1.3 kHz square pulse to drive the power MOSFET that connected to a standard step up transformer. By using voltage multiplier technique, the output from secondary transformer was step-up. The variable DC high voltage output is produced up to 4 kV. The input voltage as low as 12 volt is required to generate smooth and stable high voltage output.


4. QUALITY CONTROL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF EQUIPMENT USED IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY
by P.A.Oluwafisoye, C.J.Olowookere, N.N.Jibiri, T.O.Bello, Alausa S.K. & Efunwole H.O.
Abstract

Availability and the use of X-ray equipment in both private and government hospitals is on the increase today in developed and developing countries. Quality control of such equipment is of particular importance to prevent avoidable high doses, radiation leakages and to ensure dose optimization. The results of quality control in this study indicate that the output measured in GHL (m2) ranged between 0.0318 and 0.1192 mGy (mAs)-1, while relatively higher values which ranged from 0.0762 to 0.2156 mGy ( mAs)-1 was found in four other hospitals. The tube voltage accuracy measured indicates variation among the hospitals investigated. The deviation in voltage accuracy ranged between 0.9 and 10.9% in the two units of GHL (m1 and m2). In the three other hospitals the range of deviations are 0.2 to 0.5% (PSH), 45.5 to 72.7% (NOH, the highest) 22.9 to 23.3% (NARH). Both GHL (m1) and PSH complied with the requirement of ±5%. As regard timer accuracy, linearity of the tube current and beam alignment; NOH and NARH exceeded the acceptable limits of ±5%, ±10% and ±3% respectively. The consequence of non-compliance in most part include: repeat exposures, more expenses and more importantly, excess dose to the patient.


5. SETTLEMENT EVALUATION OF SOFT CLAY REINFORCED BY STONE COLUMNS, CONSIDERING THE EFFECT OF SOIL COMPACTION
by A.Zahmatkesh & A.J.Choobbasti
Abstract

This paper investigates the performance of stone columns in soft clay. Finite element analyses were carried out to evaluate settlement of soft clay reinforced with stone columns using 15-noded triangular elements using Plaxis software. A drained analysis was carried out using Mohr-Coulomb’s criterion for soft clay, stones, and sand. At the interface between the stone column and soft clay, interface elements have been used. The column installation was simulated for calculating the stresses due to compaction of soil. From numerical results, coefficient of lateral earth pressure after the installation of stone column and the settlement reduction ratio (SRR) of the soil has been estimated. On the bases of this analysis, variation of stress in soft soil after installation of column with distance from column is significantly reduced. The results are compared with those available in the literature and the advantages of the numerical analysis were highlighted.


6. INVESTIGATION OF CONVECTION AND RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER IN RHOMBUS MICROCHANNELS
by C.Aghanajafi, V.Vandadi & M.R.Shahnazari
Abstract

The extensive engineering applications of Micro-Electro-Mechanical systems (MEMS) have promoted abundant studies of its fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics. This work presented numerical simulation of fully developed flow for characteristic laminar slip flow and heat transfer in rhombus microchannels with the presence of radiation. The slip velocity and temperature jump boundary conditions at the wall are performed. The effects of Reynolds number, velocity slip and temperature jump on Poiseuille number and impact of the presence of radiation on Nusselt number for different aspect ratio is reported.


7. A MATHEMATICAL MODELING APPROACH TO STUDY GROWTH RATE OF GRASSROOTS TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS
by Amritbir Singh & Ravi Kant Mishra
Abstract

In this paper we have proposed a simple mathematical model by using ordinary differential equation to know the spread rate of technological innovations in rural India. In support of model the data related to technological innovations in the state Punjab (India) has been collected and analysed graphically/mathematically. The outcomes verified the Sigmoid pattern growth (exponential, linear & asymptotic).


8. DYNAMICS OF A TEST PARTICLE IN THE RESTRICTED FOUR BODY PROBLEM
by M.I.El-Saftawy & F.A.Abd El-Salam
Abstract

The restricted four body problem, or equivalently the bicircular problem is defined. The Hamiltonian of the problem is constructed. The method of solution is briefly outlined. The solution of the problem is obtained using Delva-Hanslmeir perturbation technique. A computer program, using Mathematica 5.2, is built up to facilitate the lengthy cumbersome computation of the higher order perturbations.


9. RELIABILITY CHARACTERISTIC OF COLD-STANDBY REDUNDANT SYSTEM
by S.C. Agarwal, Mamta Sahani & Shikha Bansal
Abstract

The objective of this paper is to improve the system reliability through append the redundant component. In this paper, two units in cold-standby is considered. Each unit of the system has two modes via; operable and failed. The failures of units are of two types: minor and major. After major failure, cold standby unit replaces the failed unit after a random amount of time. The failure and repair times follow exponential and general time distributions respectively. We transform the basic equations of the proposed model into an integro-differential equation and solve it using Supplementary variables techniques, various reliability parameters have been computed and analyzed by tabular and graphical illustrations.


10. OPERATIONS RESEARCH - CONTEMPORARY ROLE IN MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING
by Sangeeta Agrawal, KR Subramanian & S.Kapoor
Abstract

As the global environment becomes fiercely competitive, Operations Research has gained significance in applications like world-class Manufacturing systems(WCM), Lean production, Six-sigma quality management, Benchmarking, Just-in-time (JIT) inventory techniques. The growth of global markets and the resulting increase in competition have highlighted the need for Operation Research. To survive and lead the today’s highly competitive and demand driven market, pressure is on management to make economical decisions. One of the essential managerial skills is ability to allocate and utilize resources appropriately in the efforts of achieving the optimal performance efficiently. In some cases such as small-scale low complexity environment, decision based on intuition with minimal quantitative basis may be reasonably acceptable and practical in achieving the goal of the organization. However, for a large-scale system, both quantitative and qualitative (i.e. intuition, experience, common sense) analyses are required to make the most economical decisions. Using Operations Research techniques including Linear Programming, Discrete Event Simulation and Queueing Theory, organization leaders can make high quality decisions. Operations managers are not expected to be experts in any decision science tools; however, he or she must have fundamental knowledge of such tools to acquire right resources and to make the most economically sounding decisions for the company as a whole. Present paper is an attempt to study the importance of Operation research and various techniques used to improve the operational efficiency of the organization.


11. EVALUATION OF THE RISK OF DRUG ADDICTION WITH THE HELP OF FUZZY SETS
by Manoranjan Kumar Singh, Rakesh.L & Aniket Ranjan
Abstract

The primary focus of this paper is to present a general view of the current applications of fuzzy logic in medical analogy of consumption of drugs. The paper also deals with the origin, structure and composition of fuzzy sets. We particularly review the medical literature using fuzzy logic. Fuzzy set theory can be considered as a suitable formalism to deal with the imprecision intrinsic to many real world problems. Fuzzy set theory provides an appropriate framework for the representation of vague medical concepts and imprecise modes of reasoning. We present two concrete illustrations to investigate the impact of the risk related to drug addictions, like smoking and alcohol drinking and thereby highlighting the social problem related to health.


12. THE NONLINEAR VOLTERRA INTEGRAL EQUATION WITH WEAKLY KERNELS AND TOEPLITZ MATRIX METHOD
by F.A.Hendi & Sh.Al-Hazmi
Abstract

In this work, we investigate the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the NVIE with weakly kernels by using the Banach fixed point theorem. The Toeplitz matrix method is considered, to obtain a nonlinear system of algebraic equations, which can be solved numericall. Also, many important theorems related to derive the existence and uniqueness of the produced algebraic system are considered. Finally, we discuss some numerical examples, when the kernel takes a logarithmic and Carleman forms and the estimate error is calculated, in each case.














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