Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 27, Issue 3 (June, 2016)

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1. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF UNRIPE PAWPAW (Carica papaya Linn.) FRUIT’S PEEL AND SEED
by Felix Abayomi Dada, Faith Ozioma Nzewuji, Adewale Micheal Esan, Sunday Idowu Oyeleye & Victoria Bola Adegbola
Abstract

In Nigeria, unripe papaya peel and seed are usually discarded during the preparation of papaya fruit. Unripe papaya, apart from being an edible fruit, also has a long history and proof of being an effective medicinal fruit used in the management of some human ailments. This study sought to examine the aqueous extracts of unripe papaya peel and seed for possible antioxidants and phytochemicals potencies. The phytochemicals screening showed that saponin and steroids were present while cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones only were absent in the extracts of both unripe papaya peel and seed. Furthermore, flavonoid and sterol were present only in unripe papaya peel extract but absent in unripe papaya seed extract. Furthermore, tannin and terpenoid were only present in the extract of unripe papaya seed but absent in unripe papaya peel extract. The antioxidant results showed that the extract of unripe papaya seed is richer in total phenol (131.00 mg GAE/100 g) and total flavonoid (191.06mg QAE/100g) than that of  papaya peel [Total phenol = 126.75 mg GAE/100 g; Total flavonoid = 166.11mg QAE/100 g]. Meanwhile, the antioxidant results revealed that the extract of unripe pawpaw peel had higher ferric reducing antioxidant property (112.35 mg AAE/100 g) compared to the unripe papaya seed extract (102.78mg AAE/100g). Therefore, use of unripe papaya peel and seed as herbal materials could be of therapeutic use in the management/treatment of some oxidative stress induced human ailments due to their antioxidant and phytochemical potencies.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2016-- Vol. 27 Issue 3 -- 2016

2. APPLYING MODIFIED DELPHI METHOD AND THE ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS TO INVESTIGATE THE FACTORS OF VEGETARIAN RESTAURANT MANAGEMENT IN MIAOLI COUNTY

by Chia-Yang Huang, Chien-Wei Shih & Shr-Da Tu

Abstract

The study is designed to investigate the factors of vegetarian restaurant management in Miaoli County. Firstly, through the review of the present researches, it is able to organize the factors of vegetarian restaurant management in Miaoli County. Secondly, utilizing Modified Delphi Method, it can integrate the viewpoints of experts, and can construct an analytical hierarchy framework of the factors of vegetarian restaurant management in Miaoli County, including four facets, namely food quality, service quality, perceived value, restaurant location and nineteen evaluation criteria. Finally, through the result of the Analytical Hierarchy Process survey, it can analyze each evaluation criteria for constructing the system of the factors of vegetarian restaurant management in Miaoli County. The results of the study are threefold. Firstly, for consumers, food quality is the most critical factor of vegetarian restaurant management in Miaoli County. The influential degree of service quality and perceived value is not obvious. Restaurant location will affect minimum. Secondly, for consumers, the most important attribute of food quality is healthfulness, diversity and freshness. The most important attribute of service quality is reliability and tangibility. The most important attribute of perceived value is emotional facet and quality-function facet. The most important attribute of restaurant location is transportation. To sum up, the most critical factors of vegetarian restaurant management in Miaoli County are healthfulness, diversity, freshness and taste. The results of the study can be used as a reference of vegetarian restaurant management or provide a reference of vegetarian restaurant entrepreneur for his costs and benefits.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences 
June 2016-- Vol. 27 Issue 3 -- 2016

3. USE OF CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE IN PHYTOPLANKTON "LEMNA GIBBA" AS BIOASSAYS TO DETECT THE TOXICITY OF HERBICIDES "ATRAZINE"
by Zemri Khalida, Boutiba zitouni, Zemri mohammed & Popovic Radovan
Abstract

The activity of the photosynthetic apparatus represents a target for contaminants. In ecotoxicology, the easiest and economical way which provides information on the presence and toxicity level of a contaminant that is bioassays and biochemical analyzes. Bioassays represent a simple and economical approach but not sensitive and requires a long followed by biochemical analyzes it time is faster and they have high sensitivity but it is costly and complex. In this study, we used chlorophyll fluorescence to evaluate the effect of Atrazine on photosynthesis in Lemna Gibba studying the mechanism of toxicity on the synthesis of chlorophyll and the transfer of electrons between photosystem II and I. parallel, we tested the toxicity of Atrazine using a standardized bioassay fish. The results obtained with experimental trials, show that Atrazine is very harmful to aquatic life, however, the most remarkable observation relates to the use of chlorophyll fluorescence method which is still developing. This was used to assess the degree of toxicity of the photosynthetic apparatus, while highlighting the site of action of this pollutant on the mechanism of photosynthesis. Indeed, this new method is easy, reliable, and fast and can be used to develop sensitive biomarkers to photosynthetic toxicity of xenobiotics.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2016-- Vol. 27 Issue 3 -- 2016

4. STRUCTURE THEOREMS OF VON NEUMANN ALGEBRAS INDUCED BY BIJECTIVE MONADS
by Ilwoo Cho and In Hyoun Kim
Abstract

In this paper, we study von Neumann algebras induced by bijective monads    consisting of discrete sets  and bijective functions  on . Start from a fixed bijective monad    we establish a graph  and its groupoid  The groupoid von Neumann algebra  generated by  is well-determined under a representation    induced by   . We are interested in structure theorems of such von Neumann algebras  We provide (i) free-probabilistic structure theorems, and (ii) structure theorems up to combinatorial characterizations for  

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2016-- Vol. 27 Issue 3 -- 2016













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