Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 16, Issue 4(October, 2013)
Special Issue on "Advances in Applied Physics : the Application of Linear and non Linear-Chaotic-Deterministic Methodologies and of Quantum Mechanics in Life Sciences"

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EDITORIAL for the Special Issue on "Advances in Applied Physics : the Application of Linear and non Linear-Chaotic-Deterministic Methodologies and of Quantum Mechanics in Life Sciences"
Chap 2 of Recurrence Quantification Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems by Charles L. Webber, Jr. and Joseph P. Zbilut"

1. ON THE POSSIBILITY TO IDENTIFY QUANTUM INTERFERENCE EFFECTS ON THE SINGLE HUMAN SUBJECT DURING COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE BY USING STROOP EFFECT: THE PERSPECTIVE OF CLINICAL APPLICATION OF THE QUANTUM COGNITIVE MODEL
by Vincenza Laterza, Orlando Todarello & Elio Conte
Abstract

Starting with 2003 some authors performed a number of experiments with the finality to ascertain if quantum mechanics has a role during the perception and cognition in Humans. The arising quantum cognitive model was repeatedly confirmed. In the  present paper we perform for the first time a similar experiment but executed this time on the single subject. The finality is to establish if also in these conditions we are able to estimate the quantum interference effects. Since the results of the  experimentation are positive we conclude that we may start using the quantum cognitive model not only as basic theoretical framework for understanding cognition in humans but also to apply the new methodology in clinical cases of interest as in investigation of psychological disorders and psychiatric diseases.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
October 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 4 -- 2013

2. THE E-MERGING MIND

by Franco Orsucci

Abstract

We are going to explore a dynamical space delimited by two basic conceptual poles in system dynamics: e-mergence and mergence or, if you prefer, fusion. While the first concept is more frequently cited and discussed, the second one is often neglected. It is unclear why, as it might be difficult to define and understand the first without the second and vice versa. We might say that they form a dynamic couple. If we have a look at their semantic fields in natural language, we could easily see why (Merriam-Webster, 1998).

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences 
October 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 4 -- 2013

3. THEISM, PROBABILITY, BAYES’ THEOREM AND QUANTUM STATES
by John M. Ostrowick
Abstract

Richard Swinburne argues that theism is a simple explanation, and is therefore more likely true, on a Bayesian analysis of the probability of theism as a hypothesis, particularly as compared to materialism or physicalism. However, numerous other interpretations of probability are possible, and Swinburne fails to take into account some fairly standard concepts from probability theory, such as the sum of probabilities and the Total Probability Rule, or what exactly he means when he says our universe is improbable. Swinburne also does not address Quantum Bayesianism and Quantum Mechanics and its impact on his theory. This paper addresses these concerns, and concludes we have much work to do to obtain convincing results if Swinburne wants to convince us of his theistic hypothesis.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
October 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 4 -- 2013

4. THE TRANSACTION AS A QUANTUM CONCEPT
by Leonardo Chiatti
Abstract

This essay intends to present a novel approach to the concept of “transaction” in quantum physics. The central ideas of this approach were outlined by this author in two essays in the 1990s (1, 2), while a more detailed treatment was published in volume in 2005 (3). Breaking with Cramer’s original theory, the transaction is not connected to the simultaneously retarded and advanced space time propagation of classical fields, as in the spirit of Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics. Instead, the transaction is seen as an archetypal structure intrinsic within the quantum formalism. The present approach is advantageous in that, while preserving the essential point of Cramer’s theory, is also fully consistent with the standard quantum formalism. In particular, it has the advantage of avoiding the introduction of elements which are completely extraneous to quantum formalism (such as the propagation of real physical waves in four-dimensional space-time, the phase difference between offer and confirmation waves which is necessary for the elimination of “tails”, the echoing mechanism, etc.) and which have led to misunderstandings, such as Maudling’s objection. Furthermore, this approach elucidates the relationship between transactional mechanisms and block universe, implicate order, and causality.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
October 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 4 -- 2013

5. ESTIMATION OF FRACTAL DIMENSION ON INNER STRUCTURE OF LEAF SAMPLES BY USING THE BOX COUNTING METHOD
by Elio Conte & Maria Pieralice
Abstract

Organisms support continual exchange with the environment so that they maintain in a state far from their thermodynamic equilibrium. The plants maintain themselves under low entropy conditions, a necessary prerequisite to life. The concept of  fractal dimension to describe structures, which look the same at all length scales, was first proposed by Mandelbrot  Objects are usually referred to as self-similar to indicate their scale-invariant structure. The common characteristic of such fractal objects is that their length depends on the length scale used to measure it, and the fractal dimension tells us the precise nature of this dependence. Estimation of fractal dimension of leaf shape was recently performed form various authors. We estimated Fractal Dimension of different kinds of leaves looking at their inner structure until to the cellular nucleus. The results of the applied methodology resulted rather satisfactory so that in following papers we will apply it to investigation of plant structures under different experimental conditions as plant stress and per oxidation.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
October 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 4 -- 2013

6. ON AN INTEGRATED CONCEPT OF MIND
by Sander Kales
Abstract

On the basis of some recent studies conducted from various authors on HRV and its enhancement under Alfa stimulation by using brain entrainment, we suggest that we should think to mind as in integrated process arising from the contribution of various integrated systems.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
October 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 4 -- 2013

7. SELF-ORGANIZATION OF A COMPLEX SYSTEM: A HYPOTHESIS OF HOMEOSTATIC PATTERN OF PAIN
by Giuseppe Serafini
Abstract

The concept of homeostasis has expanded: while initially its application used to be bound to the field of classical organ physiology, apparatus or system (eg.: circulation, endocrine system, excretory system), it now appears that there is homeostasis at other levels, both at the cellular and molecular level (eg.: ion concentrations in the cytoplasm, speed the catalysis of an enzyme, etc..) that in terms of systems and functions that control the integrity and quality of biologically significant information (eg.: immune system, neurobiology, the NoPain/Pain system). The NP/P is a structured system for hierarchical architecture, consisting of 3 subsystems: sensory-discriminative, motivational-affective and cognitive-evaluative. In basal and physiological conditions, the whole system is organized with a high degree of modularization, with an activity which favors, especially in the responses to low frequency, the intra- rather than the inter-modular interactions. Its dynamic behavior is subject to regulatory processes according to a homeostatic model: it is basically a regulatory not linear system, in multiple circuits of feedback/ feedforward control. The homeostatic system is represented by a feedback loop (feedback) in which the information on the result of a transformation or an oscillation of activity is postponed, revised and corrected, at the entrance of the cycle. Always interpreted as a linear phenomenon, NP/P system shows on the other hand, in modeling complexity, the ability to compress the regularities identified in a scheme, in an internal model, that is a behavior and understanding of reality model, which is far from being linear.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
October 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 4 -- 2013

8. THE SUNSPOTS MECHANISM
by Mahmoud E. Yousif
Abstract

Sunspots are produced in the transitional zone of tachocline between the radioactive and convection zone, at a suitable internal low magnetic lines of force (LMLF), with abundance electrons and protons, the production is carried out by slow process of both electrons and protons captured by the LMLF, produced sunspots two pillars are later ejected to move to the adjacent photosphere solar latitude, then pole ward.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
October 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 4 -- 2013

9. FRACTAL GEOMETRY AND SUPERFORMULA TO MODEL NATURAL SHAPES
by Nicoletta Sala
Abstract

Mathematics is a branch of the science which has been used to model the natural and the biological forms, for many centuries.

Pythagoras, Aristotle, Fibonacci, Cardano, Bernoulli, Euler, Laplace, Gauss, von Helmholtz, Riemann, Einstein, Thompson, Turing, Wiener, von Neumann, Keller, and others studied  important applications of mathematics to life sciences and significant developments in mathematics motivated by the life sciences.

Euclidean geometry, which dominated our mathematical thinking for centuries,  has lost importance,  because its primitive concepts (point, straight line and surface) and its simple constructs (squares and triangles) do not find application in the description of the natural objects.

Plato was able to reconcile the inability of classical geometry (as later formulated by Euclid) to describe the world we inhabit, and more recently,  Mandelbrot has argued that fractal geometry could provide a coherent description of the design principles underlying living organisms.  

This paper presents the fractal geometry, with its properties and its characteristics, as a useful tool to describe and to study the natural forms (e.g., fern, trees, seashells, bushes, basins of rivers, mountains), and the  “superformula” by Gielies  to model many complex shapes and curves that are found in nature.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
October 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 4 -- 2013

10. A QUANTUM-MECHANICAL INTERPRETATION OF METACOGNITION
by Ferda Kaleagasioglu & Rüstü Onur
Abstract

 

Metacognition is the awareness of what we know. By the virtue of our metacognitive capability, we are able to mediate the processing of both explicit and implicit data accumulated over time. Metacognitive capability is compromised in schizophrenia, drug addiction and by drug-treatment. In this paper, we first discuss neural and computational mechanisms of metacognition, and then we elaborate on pharmacotherapy from a quantum mechanical perspective.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
October 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 4 -- 2013

11. COMPLEXITY THEORY AND TSALLIS NON-EXTENSIVE STATISTICS: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS
by Pavlos G.P.
Abstract

In this study the general theoretical framework of Complexity theory is presented, viewed through non-extensive statistical theory introduced by Constantino Tsallis in 1988. Nonlinear dynamics, fractional dynamics, thermodynamics and statistical physics constitute the basic elements of Complexity theory which can be applied to processes near, as well as, far from equilibrium. Moreover, the nonextensive statistics can be the fundamental linchpin of Complexity theory from microscopical to macroscopical level. Finally, a brief review of results concerning nonlinear analysis of time series corresponding to different complex systems is given.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
October 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 4 -- 2013

12. ESTIMATION OF BRS BY USING SIMULTANEOUS VARIABILITY OF RR-INTERVALS IN HEART AND SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE IN HUMANS
by Francesco Casciaro & Gabriele De Masi De Luca
Abstract

We used a new method to estimate BaroReflex Sensitivity (BRS). The methodology, based on the CZF formulation,  (see Conte et al 2009), enabled us  to evaluate simultaneous variability of RR and SBP and to estimate the BRS. The method was  applied to seven  subjects (female and men with age ranging from 21 to 28 years old) and the results were  compared with those that may be obtained by using the standard Fourier spectral analysis technique. The results also resulted in satisfactory agreement with previously obtained results by application of the same methodology.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
October 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 4 -- 2013

13. A BRIEF REVIEW ON THE APPLICATIONS OF SOME METHODOLOGIES IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
by Ana María Sánchez Peralta
Abstract

Medical Physics has developed significantly in recent years to be an essential service in the health sciences.

The hospital development in the past two decades has led to the introduction of Electro Medical Service, due to some modifications of the patterns in the diagnostic, analytics, treatments in recovery and in maintaining the patient's health. All this has led to large increases have technical equipment giving rise to a large hospital engineering, through the maintenance and rational use of electromedical equipments.

The nature of physiological signs is complex. The methods of non-linear analysis can provide some elements for understanding the functions and dysfunctions of organs or systems, being useful for the characterization of their behavior or as a diagnostic aid in pathologies.

A lineal relation is considered as variable when data is distributed approximately along a straight line on a scatter diagram.
Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
October 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 4 -- 2013

14. A NOVEL METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF STATE ANXIETY BY LINEAR AND NON LINEAR METHODOLOGIES
by Nunzia Santacroce
Abstract

In the light of the results obtained during the last two decades in analysis of signals by time series, it has become evident that the tools of non linear dynamics have their elective role of application in biological, and, in particular, in neuro-physiological and psycho-physiological studies. This work consists in the study of state anxiety as psychological phenomenon characterized by a quantum like model behavior, thus we investigate transitions potentiality à actualization at its basis both in normal and in psycophtological subjects.

Considering that dinamics of state anxiety follows a fractal regime assuming a deterministic-chaotic behavior, we recur to new parameters that are more accurate to evaluate basic characteristics of time series of STAI-S scores.
The methodology is characterized by combination of linear and and non-linear techniques.
The Fast Fourier Transform Fourier Transform (FFT) is a method of linear analysis in the frequency domain that has detected four harmonic oscillating components according to circadian, infradian and ultradian biorythms. These components common to whole experimenatl subjects have a more intensive action in the case of psychopatological subsample. Then FFT provides to differentiate normal partecipants from those with psychopatological diagnosis.

The technique of the variogram (CZF method) detects linear and nonlinear mechanisms that underlie state anxiety process. Variograms have provided two important indications about the variability of state anxiety dynamics in time.
First, for all participants, variograms have confirmed some constant recurrences in specific time lag, and therefore in time: variograms always assume the same increasing and decreasing behaviors in the initial lags (from 4.66 hours to one week) and intermediate lags (from 8 days to 16 days) of the graph, with pronounced peaks of variability into the same timeframe, and then ever lower values until to close to zero in the intervals of ending-lag (one month).
FInto this general distribution of variability, it has identified a further illustration of state anxiety according to normal, normal-psychopathological and psychopathological subgroup: people of the same subgroup show overlapping traits of growth and decrease variability as well as the same points of increase along graphic descending and ascending trait.

These results allow us to formulate an important consideration: mental entities involved in phenomenon of state anxiety act according to its own internal function both general and specific in relation to the conditions of normality and psychopathology. Specific variability indeces of variogram discriminate time dinamics of state anxiety of normal subjects and psychopathological. This evidence is confirmed by statistical t-test and F-test at 99% of accuracy, instead according to predictions, there is a similarity between normal-psychopathological and psychopathological sbsample. Finally, in order to quantify the amount of variability at low or high STAI-S score level, we use the method of Poincare plot that consists in the reconstruction of time series of data in the two-dimensional phase space. Poincaré Plot provides two new indices: SD1 reflects variability at the level of "low scores" category while SD2 reflects variability at the level of "high scores".

Preliminary assumption that SD1 and SD2 indices must be either both or alternatively higher in the case of individuals with psychopathology, has been broadly confirmed by the results obtained.
In fact, the effectiveness of Poincaré plot to diversify normal subjects by pathological ones, has been demonstrated by results of statistical reliability. These results have been obtained for the first time demonstrating sensitivity of variogram and Poincaré plot as excellent non-linear methods to detect dynamic fluctuations of state anxiety in time and then to discriminate normal individuals from those with psychopathology in regime of dynamic analysis.
Trhough these methods we can get an inner overview of state anxiety with relevant clinical and therapeutic advantages.
Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
October 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 4 -- 2013