Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 16, Issue 3(September, 2013)

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1. THE COUPLED EINSTEIN-EULER SYSTEM WITH THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT
by Raoul Domingo Ayissi
Abstract

We prove the global existence of solutions to the coupled Einstein-Euler system.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

2. THE COMBINED FORECASTING MODEL OF GRAY MODEL BASED ON LINEAR TIME-VARIANT AND ARIMA MODEL

by Xia Long, Yong Wei, Jie Li & Zhao Long

Abstract

As to the established gray model based on the linear time-variant and individual prediction model of ARIMA, this article constructs the combined forecasting model based on the gray model and the time series model by means of relative error weighing. This prediction indicates that both the gray model and ARIMA model exert efficient function on the Torpedo development cost prediction, and the combination forecast model improve the precision of prediction.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences 
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

3. A COMPARISON OF COHEN'SKAPPA AND AGREEMENT COEFFICIENTS BY CORRADO GINI
by Matthijs J. Warrens
Abstract

The paper compares four coefficients that can be used to summarize inter-rater agreement on a nominal scale. The coefficients are Cohen's kappa and three coefficients that were originally proposed by the Italian statistician CorradoGini. All four coefficients have zero value if the two nominal variables are statistically independent, and value unity if there is perfect agreement. The coefficients are compared both analytically and empirically. An ordering between the four coefficients is formally proved. It turns out that Cohen's kappa is a lower bound of the other coefficients. Moreover, it is shown that the point estimates of Cohen's kappa and the two smallest of Gini's coefficients are very similar for real data. We conclude that these three coefficients lead to the same conclusions about the degree of inter-rater agreement in practice.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

4. EXACT SOLUTIONS FOR THE BBM EQUATION AND KP-BBM EQUATION BY AN SUB-ODE METHOD
by Shixiang Zhou & Qinghua Feng
Abstract

In this paper, we propose a generalized sub-ODE method for seeking exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. This method is based on the homogeneous balance principle, and is simple for computation. As applications, we test the validity of the method by applying it to solve the BBM equation and the KP-BBM equation. with the aid of mathematical software Maple, some new exact travelling wave solutions for the two equations are established.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

5. SOME NEW TRAVELLING WAVE SOLUTIONS FOR THE COUPLED KDV EQUATION AND THE (2+1) DIMENSIONAL PKP EQUATION
by Hongling Fan & Bin Zheng
Abstract

In this paper, with the aid of the mathematical software Maple, we derive exact travelling wave solutions of the coupled KDV equation and the (2+1) dimensional PKP equation by a proposed Riccati sub-ODE method. This method appears to be efficient in seeking exact solutions of nonlinear equations. As a result, some new travelling wave solutions for the two equations are successfully found.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

6. AN INSIGHT INTO KINEMATIC INTERACTION OF PILE EMBEDDED IN DEEP LAYERED MARINE SEDIMENT UNDER SEISMIC EXCITATION
by T.P. Peiris, D.P. Thambiratnam, N.J. Perera & C. Gallage
Abstract

 

Major earthquakes that caused damage to buildings have brought a significant attention to response of pile foundations under seismic excitation. However, seismic design of pile foundations still remains challenging, when they are embedded in multilayered soil profiles. Present study investigated the kinematic behaviour of pile embedded in a multilayered soil profile which is typically found in marine regions, using finite element method. First, modelling techniques were validated using existing results and then adopted in further analysis. It was found that the layers of soils with varying stiffness influence the pile response significantly and activate different vibration modes in the pile.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

7. GEO VISUALIZATION OF DISEASE OUTBREAK USING GEOSPATIAL CROWD SOURCING WEB APPLICATION
by Abdulwasiu Salawu, Mohd Shafie, Abdul Azeez Bello & Siew Chengxi Bernad
Abstract

In the outbreak of infectious diseases in the immediate environment, a more rapid notifiable and surveillance system is needed to track pandemics and make rapid decisions thereby reducing the spread of communicable diseases. With systems like Google Earth, providing marvellous geo visualization tools and a wider opportunity to explore complex Geospatial crowd sourcing. These system is now moving towards citizens science (citizens who act as observers), thereby engaging the general public in the trend. Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) or Geospatial Crowd sourcing is a kind of phenomena whereby the users of the web are generating the healthcare information for the geo web. The aim of this study is to propose a framework based on existing geospatial mashups services to create a crowd sourcing web application service to alert people in disease outbreak situation, help and rescue people in that location. The methodology used in this study makes it possible for the crowd to disseminate and share geospatial communicable disease information by digitizing on the fly. This study presents the results of a geo web application developed for citizens of Johor Bahru, west Malaysiain crowd sourcing for communicable disease outbreak. The results of the prototype is promising and can be used for future study in mobile geospatial crowd source applications.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

8. NUMERICAL MODELING ON ELECTRIC RESPONSE OF FIBRE-ORIENTATION OF COMPOSITES WITH PIEZOELECTRICITY
by Cheuk-Yu Lee, Qing H. Qin and Guy Walpole
Abstract

A three point bending test is considered for analysing the effect of fibre-orientation on electric response of fibre reinforced composites attaché a piezoelectric sensor. The study involves finite element simulation on a bended unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced plastic-piezoceramic composite laminate. Specifically, finite element analysis is used in order to establish a relationship between the fibre angle of the carbon-fibre and the electric response of the piezoceramic, under 3 point bending. The validity of the FE results is compared experimental observations.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN THE CONTENT OF AMINO ACIDS OF SHOOT AND ROOT OF MEDICAL HERBS OF XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM GROWING IN IRAQ
by Ayad C. Al- Daody, Fathi A. Al-Mandeel & Fanar H.Y. Al-Hashimy
Abstract

Specimens of X. strumarium were collected from Mosul city for investigation and separation of Glycine, Asparagine, Aspartic, Glutamic and Arginine as amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Separation process showed that the retention time of standard compounds was agreement with molecular weights of those standard, so the compounds that have high molecular weight took a longer retention time during the separation process compared to other.

In this study, the amino acid Glysine  observed in both crude extract of  X. stramarium, and also Asparagine and aspartic acid, while Glutamic acid was absent from those crude extracts.
Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

10. MODELING A RANDOM YIELD IN- HOUSE PRODUCTION SET UP IN A NEWSVENDOR PROBLEM
by Krishna Solanki & Ravi Gor
Abstract

 

In supply uncertainty caused by random yield, the firm receives a random portion of an order placed with a supplier. Yield uncertainty exists in many industries, including semiconductors, electronic fabrication and assembly, food processing, bio-pharmaceuticals, and resource based industries such a mining and agriculture. The existence of yield / supply process uncertainty often results in lower supply chain performance. We consider this issue in the context of a newsboy problem where before the selling season; the firm makes joint pricing and inventory decisions. We consider the in-house production case in this model and derive analytical expressions therein.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

11. EXTRACTION, PURIFICATION OF CASHEW POLYSACCHARIDE AND CHARACTERIZATION BY GC-MS, FTIR, NMR, TG/DTG
by Cheila Gonçalves Mothé & Jaqueline Souza de Freitas
Abstract

The cashew polysaccharide was obtained from A. occidentale trees by alcohol precipitation, purified in a Sephacryl S-400 HR chromatographic column, and characterized by GC-MS, GPC, FTIR, NMR, and TG/DTG, for use in foods. The comparison of CG-MS results showed that the purified cashew polysaccharide had the same neutral monosaccharides, but in different amounts. The GPC results showed that the purified cashew polysaccharide had a low molecular mass and little polydispersivity. The FTIR spectra showed bands characteristic of O-H, C-O-C, and C-O groups that are present in the structure of polysaccharides. The 1H NMR spectra of the samples were similar. Thermal analysis revealed a decomposition temperature around of 240 ºC (Tonset) for both the samples; however, the purified cashew polysaccharide had fewer residues at 800 °C.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

12. ASPHALT PRODUCTION FROM ASBUTON BY SONICATED EXTRACTION OF CARBONATE SOLIDS USING ACIDIC BRINE WATER SOLUTION
by Mohammad Nasikin, Ivan Mery Devianto & Bambang Heru Susanto
Abstract

Natural asphalt from Buton Island (asbuton) has not been fully utilized up to now. One way of its utilization was extraction process to dissolve carbonate solids in asbuton using weak acid solution. The solution was acidic brine water solution that made ​​by CO2 injection in NaCl solution. Sonicated extraction was performed at various operating conditions, namely temperature (25 to 110oC), pressure (1 to 3 bar), NaCl concentration (0.1 to 2 M), and flow rate of CO2 (0.2 to 1 L/min). All variables affect the amount of dissolved carbonate solids. Maximum of dissolved solids reached at temperature of 90oC, pressure of 3 bar, NaCl concentration of 0.5 M, CO2 flow rate of 0.6 L/min, and ratio of 0.02 g/mL. Asphalt product contained 50.47% asphalt, 24.47% carbonate solids, and 25.06% other minerals.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

13. NEW RESULTS ON DELAY-DEPENDENT STABILITY CRITERIA FOR NEUTRAL SYSTEMS WITH MIXED TIME-VARYING DELAYS AND NONLINEAR PERTURBATIONS
by Issaraporn Khonchaiyaphum & Kanit Mukdasa
Abstract

In this paper, the problem of delay-dependent stability criteria for neutral systems with mixed time-varying delays and nonlinear perturbations is considered. Based on the new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, Leibniz-Newton formula, decomposition technique of coefficient matrix, utilization of zero equations, model transformation and linear matrix inequality, new delay-dependent stability criteria are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Numerical examples show that the proposed criteria improve the existing results significantly with much less computational effort.   

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

14. NOVEL HYDROCOLLOIDS : PREPARATION & APPLICATIONS – A REVIEW
by Meenu Kapoor, Dhriti Khandal, Geetha Seshadri, Saroj Aggarwal & Rakesh Kumar Khandal
Abstract

Hydrocolloids, as the name suggests are the hydrophillic materials with the structural attributes that are responsible for formation of colloidal solutions. Generally, hydrocolloids are naturally occurring biopolymers. It does not mean that one cannot design hydrocolloids by synthetic route. All types of hydrocolloids are known from both renewable as well as non renewable resources. For various applications, preference is being given to the renewable hydrocolloids due to one reason or the other. Since the aim is to replace the existing conventional materials by the renewable ones for various applications, one needs to modify the available hydrocolloids to render certain unique features for the purpose. It is therefore necessary to create novel hydrocolloids based on the existing ones. Two of the industrially important natural hydrocolloids are starch and guar gum. In order to enhance their applicability in the industries, their derivatization is carried out to get novel derivatives with desired properties. The basic characteristics, various derivatives and the applications of these two hydrocolloids have been discussed in detail in the present paper.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

15. SICKLE CELL DISEASE (SCD) MANAGEMENT: A Theoretical Review
by Edith Egbimhanlu Alagbe, Alfred Akpoveta Susu & Adedoyin Owolabi Dosunmu
Abstract

We present in this study a theoretical review of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), highlighting the history of the disease and its pathophysiology. In addition, we also spotlight the reactions involved in SCD, the kinetics and mechanism of hemoglobin oxygenation and deoxygenation in red blood cell (which is the bane for the change in cell geometry and membrane elasticity in sickle cell patients). Since SCD is a blood disease manifested in the polymerization and deformation of red blood cells, very small capillaries (≤ 10µm) are more prone to occlusion since irreversibly sickled cells (ISC) cannot pass through such vessels because of the loss in deformability. The mathematical models reviewed predicted occurrences (pertaining to red blood cell deformation and geometry) in the vessels to an appreciable accuracy but lacked the ability to predict vasoocclusion in the vessels.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

16. RELIABILITY AND AVAILABILITY ANALYSIS OF A STANDBY REPAIRABLE SYSTEM WITH DEGRADATION FACILITY
by M.A. El-Damcese & M.S. Shama
Abstract

This paper investigates reliability and availability of a repairable system with degradation facility. Failure times and repair times of failed units are assumed to be exponentially distributed. There are two types of repair. The first is due to failed state, the second is due to degraded state. The expressions of availability and reliability characteristics such as the system reliability and the mean time to failure are derived. We used several cases to analyze graphically the effect of various system parameters on the availability system, reliability system and mean time to failure. We also investigated the sensitivity analysis for the system reliability with changes in a specific value of the system parameters.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013

17. OPTIMIZATION OF THE DESIGN OF STEEL PORTAL FRAME OF A COLD ROOM AT OJOO, IBADAN, OYO STATE, SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA
by F.A.Olutoge, O.M. Okeyinka & P.O. Akintunde
Abstract

This study examined the optimization of the design of steel portal frame for a cold room at Ojoo Ibadan located in the South West of Nigeria, with a focus on the methods available for such tasks. The objective was to find more economical solutions to the use of steel. The study attempted to attain lighter steel sections in the design, thus leading to cost economy using three methods of optimization, that is, the use of scale 2005 structural calculation ensemble, PADO software and Kaini Gasper method of iteration with a view to selecting the most appropriate method.

Four variables were selected for optimization in the portal frame and they were, the frame height, frame span, purlin spacing and roof pitch after the cold room portal frame was designed according to BS 5950. For SCALE software, the plastic modulus was determined and the moment at the hinge was fixed against each constraint. The objective optimum problems were determined, objective function evolved for PADO software, and rotation factor of the beam for the optimized design of the cold room using the iteration method was determined and optimization was attained by generating constant rotation factor for each variable with increase in loading on the frame.

The result of various methods of optimized variables were compared at the end and it was recommended that steel portal frames are economical in design and construction if optimized preferably  using software  like PADO.Cost estimate meant to analyze and compare the cost implications of the initial and optimized design was also carried out at the end of the research work and it was established that the initial design estimate is #2,709,500 (i.e. $16934.375) and the optimized one is #2,327,000 (i.e. $14543.75) giving a reduction of #302,500 ( i.e. $1890.625)  which is 14% of the initial design value. This showed that appreciable cost economy is attained through the optimization process.
Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
September 2013 -- Vol. 16 Issue 3 -- 2013













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