Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 15, Issue 3(June, 2013)

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1. SOME PROPERTIES FOR THE MARKOV PROCESSES OF ORNSTEIN-UHLENBECK TYPE
by Changqing Tong & Jing Zheng
Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the first passage problem and establish a general criterion for recurrence and transience of a Markov process of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

2. ENDPOINT ESTIMATES FOR MULTILINEAR COMMUTATOR OF LITTLEWOOD-PALEY OPERATOR

by Meiling Wang & Heng-Tai Wang

Abstract

In this paper, we prove the endpoint estimates for the multilinear commutator of Littlewood-Paley operator.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences 
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

3. DETERMINATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF SKIDDED DISTANCE ON THE INITIAL VELOCITY USING THE ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES
by Robert M. Brooks & Mehmet Cetin
Abstract

Several studies were conducted on the accidents of cars using the fundamental principles of physics and engineering including Newton’s Laws of Motion and First Law of Thermodynamics. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of skidded distance on the initial velocity. Excellent correlation coefficient was found for the relationship at α = 0.05 significance level. 

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

4. ON THE HYPER-ORDER OF SOLUTIONS OF SECOND ORDER LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH MEROMORPHIC COEFFICIENTS
by Jianren Long
Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the growth of solutions of the linear differential equation.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

5. QUADRATIC REGULAR CLASSES IN GROUPS OF ODD ORDER
by Xiaoyou Chen & Shuli Zhao
Abstract

See full text of paper for Abstract.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

6. ON FIXED POINTS OF THE CORRECTION FOR CHANCE FUNCTION FOR 2 X 2 ASSOCIATION COEFFICIENTS
by Matthijs J. Warrens
Abstract

This paper studies correction for chance for coefficients that are linear functions of the proportion of observed agreement. The fixed points of the correction for chance function are characterized. An equivalence relation on the set of linear functions is defined and it is shown that each linear function is mapped to the unique fixed point in its equivalence class.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

7. ON GENERALIZED VECTOR VARIATIONAL-LIKE INEQUALITIES AND VECTOR OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS
by Dapeng Gao & Shiqiang Feng
Abstract

In this paper, some solution relationships between nonsmooth vector optimization problems and generalized vector variational-like inequalities are established under pseudoinvexity or invariant pseudomonotonicity. A perturbed generalized weak Stampacchia vector variational-like inequality problem and its relation with generalized weak Minty vector variational-like inequality problem are also presented.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

8. COMPUTATION OF THE EIGENVALUES AND EIGENFUNCTION OF GENERALIZED STURM-LIOUVILLE PROBLEMS VIA THE DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMATION METHOD
by Mohamed El-Gamel & Mahmoud Abd El-Hady
Abstract

This paper deals with the computation of the eigenvalues and eigenfunction of generalized Sturm-Liouville problems using the differential transformation method. A few numerical examples among will be presented to illustrate the merit of the method and comparison made with the regularized sampling method. These results show that the technique introduced here is accurate and easy to apply.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

9. ANALYSIS OF THE GEOMETRICAL AND PHYSICAL FLUCTUATIONS WHILE PERFORMING INTRINSIC UNIFORMITY TEST FOR PHILIPS FORTE GAMMA CAMERA
by Ibrahim E. Saad
Abstract

 

Intrinsic flood field uniformity is a fundamental quality control test that is considered as prerequisite for performing clinical routine exams using the gamma camera. Every gamma camera vendor provides recommended geometrical and physical parameters that should be followed while performing this test. Conventional methods using NEMA recommended parameters also can be used as well. The aim of the current study was to analyze the geometrical and physical fluctuations during performing intrinsic uniformity test for the gamma camera. Materials and Methods: The intrinsic uniformity was tested for one detector of Philips Forte dual head gamma camera while changing the following geometrical factors the source distance from the detector face, the point source volume and the off-center in the X axis for the source position. Other physical factors were tested; the numbers of acquired counts and the matrix size used in the acquisition protocol, all tests have been done for both integral and differential intrinsic uniformity. The Tc99m radioactive source was used for performing the tests and it measured using a calibrated dose calibrator. Results showed that the best intrinsic uniformity was found at 200 cm point source to detector face distance, the source position from the center of the detector face in the x- axis should be at the center ( zero shift), the total number of acquired counts during the test should be from 30-60 M count and gives the best results at 30 M counts, the point source volume should be from 0.1 to 0.5 ml and the matrix size used in the acquisition protocol should be adjusted with 512X512 matrix. Conclusion: There were statistically significant differences between the results for each studied factor which indicates that there is an optimum value that should be used in each test at which the best integral and differential uniformity results were measured, deviation from this value lead to deterioration of the integral and differential uniformity as well, which in turn will affect the clinical image.  Also there are acceptable limits by which the results of the test could be accepted for each factor studied according to the NEMA specifications of the studied (Philips, Forte) gamma camera.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

10. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL REACTION WITH HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER ON PERISTALTIC MOTION OF POWER-LAW FLUID IN AN ASYMMETRIC CHANNEL WITH WALL'S PROPERTIES
by Nabil T.M. Eldabe, Afaf S. Zaghrout, Hameda M. Shawky & Amera S. Awad
Abstract

In this work, we investigated the peristaltic motion of a non-Newtonian fluid which obeying power-law model, with heat and mass transfer through an asymmetric channel. The wall properties and chemical reaction are considered. This phenomena is modeled mathematically by a system of governing equations which are continuity, momentum with heat and mass. These equations are solved analytically under the conditions of low Reynolds number and long wave length. The solutions of these equations which are stream function, temperature and concentration are obtained as functions of physical parameters of the problem. The effects of these parameters on those solutions are discussed numerically and illustrated graphically through a set of figures.  

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

11. ON ALMOST SIMILARITY OPERATOR EQUIVALENCE RELATION
by Musundi S. Wabomba, Sitati N. Isaiah, Nzimbi B. Mutuku & Murwayi A. Lunani
Abstract

We consider the almost similarity property which is a new class in operator theory and was first introduced by A. A. S. Jibril.   We establish that almost similarity is an equivalence relation.  Some results on almost similarity and isometries, compact operators, hermitian, normal and projection operator are also shown.  By characterization of unitary equivalence operators in terms of almost similarity we prove that operators that are similar are almost similar.  We also claim that quasi-similarity implies almost similarity under certain conditions (i.e. if the quasi-affinities are assumed to be unitary operators).

Furthermore, a condition under which almost similarity of operators implies similarity is investigated. Lastly, we show that two bounded linear operators   of a Banach algebra on a Hilbert space  are both completely non-unitary if they are contractions which are almost similar to each other.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

12. PERISTALTIC MOTION WITH HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER OF A DUSTY FLUID THROUGH A HORIZONTAL POROUS CHANNEL UNDER THE EFFECT OF WALL PROPERTIES
by Nabil T. Eldabe, Kawther A.Kamel, Galila M. Abd-Allah& Shaimaa F.Ramadan
Abstract

The objective of this analysis is to study the effect of wall properties on the peristaltic transport of a dusty fluid through porous channel with heat and mass transfer. This phenomenon is modulated mathematically by a system of partial differential equations which govern the motion of the fluid and solid particles. This system of equations is solved analytically in dimensionless form with the appropriate boundary conditions by using perturbation technique for small geometric parameter . The expressions of velocity, temperature and concentration of fluid and solid particles are obtained as functions of the physical parameters of the problem. The effects of the physical parameters of the problem on these distributions are discussed and illustrated graphically through a set of figures.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

13. CERTAIN INVESTIGATIONS ON THE GAP JUNCTION CONDUCTANCE IN SYNCHRONIZATION ISSUES
by T.S. Murugesh, J. Krishnan & R. Malathi
Abstract

The sinoatrial (SA) node is a thin sheet of cardiac muscle fibers composed of several hundred thousand cells, each of which is an electrical oscillator. Studies of cells isolated enzymatically from the SA node indicate that the intrinsic oscillation frequency of each cell is different. Despite these differences, a coherent oscillatory electrical wave known as the pacemaker potential is generated within the node. This wave is conducted throughout the heart, determining its rate of beating. The pace making cells in the Rabbit heart beat at a wide range of frequencies (80-330 beats per minute) in culture, but within the heart they beat at a common frequency set by the normal sinus rhythm. As a result the synchronization within the heart becomes extremely difficult with such a wide range of intrinsic frequencies. The adjustment of rhythms due to an interaction is the essence of synchronization, the term originating from the Greek words chronos meaning time and syn meaning the same, common. Upon direct translation “synchronous” means “sharing the common time”, “occurring in the same time”. This work attempts to explore the issues in the much desired synchronization within the heart with a valid electro physiology model of cardiac pacemaker cells in the cardiac system. For the species Rabbit, an array of sinoatrial node cells was developed and the same was simulated using Matlab software. The simulated results were validated against the prevailing experimental data. The existence of a parameter that can influence the frequency of the so generated action potential was investigated that resembled Gap Junction conductance in real electrophysiology. The intrinsic frequency of the individual cells in the formulated cell array was varied both ways and the resultant effects as observed in the synchronization of the cardiac cells were presented. The functional role of the gap junctions in effecting the much desired synchronization issues within the cardiac system was elucidated.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

14. COUPLED FIXED POINT THEOREMS WITH CLRG PROPERTY IN FUZZY METRIC SPACES
by Sumitra & Ibtisam Masmali
Abstract

In this paper, we introduce the notions of E.A. property and CLRg property for coupled mappings and prove common coupled fixed point theorems without exploiting the notion of continuity, completeness of  the whole space or any of its range spaces. Our theorems generalize the result of  [5] and [10-14]. We also find an affirmative answer in fuzzy metric space to the problem of Rhoades[2]. Illustrative  examples supporting our results have also been cited.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

15. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FORBUSH DECREASES OF COSMIC RAY INTENSITY
by Naglaa E. Aly
Abstract

Fifty-four Forbush decrease (Fd) events had been studied during a period of twenty years. It was found that there exist dependence between the amplitude of (Fd) event and the rigidity at the point of observation. The spectrum responsible for the Forbush decrease is found to have a power law with an exponent which depends on the profile of the event. (Fd) events can be classified into three different classes depending on the shape of its decreases and recovery.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

16. EXPERT SYSTEM DESIGN AND CONTROL OF CRUDE OIL DISTILLATION COLUMN OF A NIGERIAN REFINERY USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK MODEL
by Lekan T. Popoola, Gutti Babagana & Alfred A. Susu
Abstract

This research work investigated the expert system design and control of crude oil distillation column (CODC) using artificial neural network model which was validated using experimental data obtained from functioning crude oil distillation column of Port-Harcourt Refinery, Nigeria. MATLAB program was written for the artificial neural network back-propagation algorithm using the implementation steps of the artificial neural network. Out of the one-hundred and thirty (130) experimental data sets obtained, ninety percent (90%) were used for training the network while the remaining ten percent (10%) were used for testing the network to determine its prediction accuracy. The neural network architecture for the design of the crude oil distillation column was fourteen inputs with one hidden layer and seven outputs (14-1-7); and thirteen (13) inputs with one hidden layer and six (6) outputs (13-1-6) for the neural network controller. The accuracies obtained for the design were 94%, 99%, 92%, 93%, 81%, 95% and 90% for temperature at which 100% (T100) of Kerosene, 90% (T90) of Diesel and 10% (T10) of AGO were distilled; and naphtha, kerosene, diesel and AGO flow rates respectively. The maximum relative error between the experimental data and the calculated data obtained from the output variables of the neural network for CODC design was 1.98% error. The accuracies obtained for the neural network controller (NNC) were 98%, 99%, 99%, 93%, 97% and 97% for the stripping steam to main column, LDO stripper, HDO stripper, reflux flow 1, reflux flow 2 and reflux flow 3 respectively. The little deviation between the output variables of the experimental and calculated data for the cases of NNC predictions for reflux flows 1, 2 and 3 resulted from their excessive usage by the PID controller of the refinery considered to meet the product specifications. Hence, artificial neural network model is an effective tool for the design and control of crude oil distillation column.  

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

17. INVESTIGATING THE PHOTOVOLTAIC BEHAVIOUR OF LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE (LED)
by Ezeonu Stella O., Okonkwo Godfrey N., & Nweze Christian I.
Abstract

The photovoltaic behaviour of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was investigated at Awka (6.12N, 7.05E), Nigeria, for a period of three months, January - March 2010. The LEDs were exposed to solar radiation as single units and as multiple units having 36 pieces of LEDs connected in series on one hand and in parallel on the other hand, from 600 – 1800 hours each day. These irradiated LEDs were monitored for photo-generated voltage and current at hourly intervals. The solar radiation on a horizontal surface was measured using a digital luxmeter – (a Mastech Model MS6610). Ambient temperature was measured using mercury-in-glass thermometer while the photo-generated voltage and current were monitored using a standard digital multimeter. The results obtained show that voltage and current increased with the intensity of solar radiation, with maximum values recorded between 1200hours-1300hours. . The series-connected tri-colour LEDs yielded a voltage of 14.08V and a current of 23µA while the parallel unit gave a voltage of 0.47V and a current of 205μA. The tri-colour LED therefore behaved very much like a photovoltaic cell which generates a dc photovoltage of 0.5V-1V and, in short circuit, a photocurrent of some tens of milliamps as a single unit cell, but generates a dc output voltage of 12V when 28- 36 cells are connected in series. In contrast, the other colours of LED yielded a relatively high voltage and current in parallel connection but low voltage and low current in series connection.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

18. RECYCLING FINE SANDCRETE BLOCK WASTE (FSBW) AS FINE AGGREGATE IN THE PRODUCTION OF SANDCRETE BLOCK
by Opeyemi Joshua, Kolapo O. Olusola, Lekan M. Amusan & Ignatius O. Omuh
Abstract

The study investigated the use of Fine Sandcrete Block Waste (FSBW) as fine aggregate in the production of sandcrete blocks with a view of controlling waste and decongesting block molding production sites. Standard sandcrete blocks of size 450mmX225mmX225mm were prepared from a mix ratio 1:6 (cement: fine aggregate) containing sand and FSBW as fine aggregates. The sand was partially replaced by FSBW in the mix within the range 0% - 90% in steps of 10%. The blocks were cured for 28 days and then tested for compressive strength. The physical properties of both the sand and FSBW were also determined. The results of the study revealed that the physical properties of FSBW compares favorably with those of conventional sand with the exception of water absorption. It further showed that the density and the compressive strength of the tested blocks decrease as the percentage replacement of sand with FSBW increases. The density of the blocks varied linearly with the compressive strength. Blocks prepared for mixes having 50% FSBW content or less were found to satisfy the minimum recommended compressive strength of 3.45N/mm2 (NIS 87:2000).

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

19. PREDICTION OF CONCENTRATION PROFILES OF CONTAMINANTS IN GROUNDWATER POLLUTED BY LEACHATES FROM A LANDFILL SITE
by Lukmon Salami, Olaosebikan A. Olafadehan, Gutti Babagana & Alfred A. Susu
Abstract

Point sources such as landfills can release high concentration of contaminants into the groundwater because of migration of leachate from its bottom. The leachate is generated primarily as a result of precipitation on an active landfill surface, leading to the transport of organic and inorganic contaminants from landfill waste which is subsequently discharged into groundwater in underlying aquifer. Landfill leachate has the potential to contaminate the surrounding environment and impair groundwater use. A one dimensional transport model was used to predict the concentration profiles of contaminants groundwater polluted by leachates from a landfill site using the finite difference approach implemented in Matlab 7.0. The concentration profiles for organic and inorganic pollutants indicated similar profiles, rising to a maximum with time and distance from the landfill. Three dimensional images were generated for the concentration profiles of all the contaminants. The data provided by Jhnamnani and Singh (2009) were used for the comprehensive prediction in this work.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

20. THE APPLICATION OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT IN LIBY’S INDUSTRIALS SECTORS FOR A SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS
by Ahmad Alghzali Mohammed, Abdalla Ab Sinusi Saiah & Abdul Talib Bin Bon
Abstract

Bureaucratic delays and red tape are the major stumbling blocks that challenge industrial companies operating in Libya where business practices remain severely underdeveloped.Most of the industries have to operate or make decisions in real-time to stay competitive. Sadly, these challenges still exist in Libya within the Government and public sector where the “sense of urgency” is lacking.  The parameters that can encourage workers of the sector in Libya to work with increased efficiency and productivity through employing strategic management will be outlined. The objective of this paperis focuses on the observation of Libyan companies applying strategic management for a successful business. This paper is a literature review of previous studies, most of the information were collected from publish journal, reports, electronic sources. The paper is also inclining to give some suggestion on how a strategic management will be implemented in order to meet of with the current challenges in Libyan industries.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

21. DETERMINATION THE PLANTED AREA BY USING WIND ENERGY
by Raaid R. Jassem
Abstract

The main aimed of this research estimating  planted area of crops by using wind energy. Wind speed for one year in IRAQ used to calculate the wind power, which it  regarded as  input power  of the pump which it used to left the water. In this paper assumed that three values of both diameter of wind turbine(4, 5,6 (m)), and depth of water well(40, 50,60 (m)). The calculations depending on the requirement of each crop to water for middle of IRAQ[8].

 The results appear that maximum water amount that  can be pumped  (12175 m3) in pressure head (40m) and wind turbine diameter (D=4m) through the JULY month and minimum amount was equal to (565 m3) in wind turbine diameter (D=4 m) and pressure head (H=60m) through the  NOVEMBER month. The minimum planting area that be planted by vegetable crop equal 18.8 m2 for turbine diameter 4 meter and pressure head  60 meter.

The maximum Area that can be planted by beans crop equals 262 m2, for turbine diameter equal 6 meter, and pressure head  equal  40 meter.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

22. SCREENING IN VITRO AND IN VIVO THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF RHUS CORIARIA EXTRACT AGAINST S. AUREUS
by Hêro Farhad Salah Akray & Zirak Fage Ahmed Abdullrahman
Abstract

The problem of antibiotic resistance has become increased in recent years. The present study investigated the antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of Rhus coriaria against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that S. aureus was multi-drug resistant where it was resistant to nine antimicrobials (AMC, CFM, CTR, DA, OB, MY, ME, NIT, and V) among seventeen used antimicrobials. The aqueous extract of R. coriaria showed a strong effect in inhibition the growth of tested isolate in vitro and in vivo. The MIC was determined where it was 0.025% and was used as curing agent for curing bacterial plasmids. The phytochemical screening showed that R. coriaria contains tannin, phenol, anthraquinon and saponin.  

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

23. SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT FOR SEASONAL RIVERS DELTAS, CASE STUDY: COPOROLO RIVER, ANGOLA
by Ashraf M. Elmoustafa
Abstract

Rivers deltas represent the most suitable area for development along river path. However, the sustainable water management plans for such place in seasonal rivers regions are very important and complex as many factors are involved. The river delta should be protected against floods and drought prior any development steps, a clean power should be ensured for the preserving of the natural condition of the river delta. Coporolo River delta represents a high potential area for development in a developing country like Angola. In this paper the river delta were studied and the previously mentioned factors were considered. The delta, as a special case for the Coporolo River, is subjected to both flood and drought risks that were both considered, the water requirements were estimated. Dams and storage locations alternatives were studied to reserve water for dry periods, for ground water recharge and to provide a clean power supply source.  Prioritization plans were proposed for the sustainable development of the river delta area to ensure their feasibility.           

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013

24. HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETRES AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF BROILER CHICKENS FED ASPERGILLUS NIGER HYDROLYZED CASSAVA PEEL MEAL BASED DIET
by Adeyemo I.A. & Sani A.
Abstract

The  effect of Aspergillus niger culture filtrate on hydrolyzed cassava peel meal based diet on the hematological parameters and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens were studied. Delignified cassava peel was used as the carbon source in a composed medium under a pH of 5.0, concentration 3% and 35oC determined as the optimal conditions for Aspergillus niger growth to grow a five milliliter developed inoculum of Aspergillus niger for five days. The culture filtrate obtained was then used to hydrolyze delignified cassava peel used as replacement for maize in broiler chicken feed at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively to meet the nutrient requirement of broilers. A total of thirty, two weeks old unsexed broiler chickens with average initial bodyweight of 0.685±0.0027g were divided into six groups of five chickens each allocated to six dietary treatments. With the increase of cassava peel in the diets, haematological indices like Haemoglobin (Hb), Red Blood Cell (RBC),White Blood Cell (WBC) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) increased significantly (P <0.05) . Differential leucocytes were used as indicators of stress response and sensitive biomarkers crucial to immune functions. The serum biochemical analysis of the blood samples showed that the serum urea differ significantly as the cassava inclusion level increases (P<0.05) while the serum total protein was stable across the groups level of cassava peel inclusion in feed notwithstanding. The marker enzymes; Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase differ significantly as the level

of cassava peel inclusion varies in feed.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
June 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 3 -- 2013













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