Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 15, Issue 2(May, 2013)

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1. AN IMPROVED DIFFERENTIAL EVOLUTION OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM
by Abazar Shamekhi
Abstract

The most important challenge in some optimization problems is CPU time. The performance and convergence speed of optimization algorithms have the most important effect on CPU time. In this work, the original differential evolution algorithm has been modified in order to increase the convergence speed of the optimization algorithm. These modifications can increase the probability of selection of evolved individuals and consequently can increase the performance of differential evolution algorithm. The performance characteristics of the modified differential evolution algorithm have been compared with those of the original differential evolution algorithm. Results obtained show that the modified differential evolution algorithm is able to converge and find the optimum point faster compared to the original algorithm. These modifications have been applied not only to different versions of differential evolution algorithm but also to adaptive differential evolution algorithm in order to investigate the convergence speed of these modified methods. According to the results obtained, the proposed modifications were able to improve the performance of the different versions of differential evolution and even adaptive differential evolution algorithms. Finally, the proposed modifications have been tested on several optimization problems to evaluate the effect of these modifications on the convergence speed of the algorithm in different applications. In all cases, the modified differential evolution algorithm is faster than the original algorithm. The results of the proposed algorithm have been verified with analytical results.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

2. PRACTICAL ISSUES ON THE MODELING OF PERMANENT-MAGNET MACHINES AND COGGING TORQUE CALCULATIONS IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS

by Antônio Flavio Licarião Nogueira

Abstract

The paper contains a description of practical issues that should be considered during the planning of finite element models. The given examples concern a direct current (dc) motor with surface-mounted permanent magnet rotor. Two techniques for simulation of the rotor movement are described, and the necessary steps to specify the directions of magnetization of both isotropic and nonisotropic curved permanent magnets are highlighted. The concept of torque pulsations is introduced. Upon this, the procedure to determine the cogging torque characteristic numerically is explained and the resulting curve is exhibited.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences 
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

3. ONE-STEP MAGNET-INDUCED SOLVENT THERMAL SYNTHESIS OF SUPERPARAMAGNETIC MAGNETITE NANOPARTICLES
by Maosheng FU, Yu XIE & Xueming ZHONG
Abstract

Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm were successfully synthesized by a facile and one-step solvothermal route, using ethylene glycol (EG) as reaction solvent, FeCl3·6H2O and urea as the starting materials, using citric acid and a magnet as particle modifier and inducer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and physical property measurement system (PPMS) were used to characterize the products. The results show that magnet play an important role in the formation of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with saturation magnetization (Ms) of 25 emu/g. Without the presence of citric acid and magnet in solvothermal preparation process, flowerlike Fe3O4 hollow spheres with the diameter of approximately 130nm were prepared, which exhibits a ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature with Ms of 81 emu/g, as well as a coercivity (Hc ) of 71 Oe. Nevertheless, under the presence of citric acid only, solid and spherical Fe3O4 nanoparticles with the diameter of 100nm can be obtained, which had a Ms of 51 emu/g.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

4. ASSESSMENT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC, DIETARY INTAKE, HYGIENIC PRACTICE AND ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES IN DETERMINING THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF MOTHERS IN AKURE SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT, ONDO STATE
by Lano-maduagu Atinuke Titilola, Ojure Mujitaba Abiola, Quadri Jelili Akorede & Edun Bilikisu Tunrayo
Abstract

This study was conducted in Akure South Local Government of Ondo State to assess food consumption and nutritional status of mothers. A total of 355 mothers were systematically selected from a sample frame consisting of listed households in the seven wards of Akure South Local Government Area. Data were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire to obtain information on subject socio-economic status, hygiene practices, and clinical observation for signs of malnutrition. Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) for mothers were also used as nutritional indicators. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.  As compared with Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), most mothers (80%) satisfied their requirement for energy. Only 38% of mothers satisfied their protein requirement. More than half of the mothers (52%) did not satisfy their iron requirement while the folic acid intake of 60% of the mothers was below the RDA. The BMI of 69.7% of the mothers were normal, 19.8% were overweight and 10.5% were underweight. The WHR for 73.6% of mothers was normal while 26.4% had a high value. The correlation analyses done shows that education, age and income level are important factors that influenced or affect the status of the mothers. The mothers age and income (r=0.726; p<0.05), Educational status of mothers and hygienic practices(r=0.533; p<0.05), Income and fat consumption (r=0.442; p<0.05), Income and BMI (r=0.591, p<0.05) are all positively related. Nutrition education is the most sensitive factor that is needed by all mothers because this will keep them informed about the right food for them at different stages of life and from there better living can be assured that will give the assurance of a better nutritional status for mothers.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

5. TECHNIQUES FOR TWO-DIMENSIONAL FINITE-ELEMENT INDUCTANCE COMPUTATION
by Antônio Flavio Licarião Nogueira
Abstract

The paper presents two techniques to calculate inductance from numeric field solutions. The set up of the numeric model representing a simple magnetic-core inductor is described. Inductance calculations are based on the concept of normalized or rated inductance. This concept is used as an artifice to obtain the total inductance value of the device when the total magnetomotive force is known but detailed information about the excitation winding is not available. The initial configuration of the inductor used in the study consists of a coil of 1000 turns wound around the central limb of a highly permeable gapless rectangular magnetic core. When operating at high excitation levels, this gapless inductor is adversely affected by magnetic saturation, and the overall drop in inductance value reaches unacceptably high values. To contour this difficulty, a new configuration is proposed. The alterations include the insertion of short air gaps in the lateral limbs of the core, as well as the choice of a different excitation winding. Numerical results place emphasis on the improved performance of the new, gapped-core inductor with 1200 turns in its excitation winding.  The new inductor exhibits a significant reduction in the overall drop in inductance values under extreme levels of excitation.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

6. NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR FLOW THROUGH A FORWARD FACING STEP CHANNEL
by Juan G. Barbosa-Saldaña, Oscar A. Morales-Contreras, José A. Jiménez-Bernal, Claudia del C. Gutiérrez-Torres & Luis A. Moreno Pacheco
Abstract

A numerical code based on the finite volume discretization technique is developed to simulate the flow through a three-dimensional forward facing step. A rectangular channel encloses the forward facing step with a contraction ratio of two and an aspect ratio of four. The channel total length in the stream-wise direction is thirty times the step height. The step occupies one third of the total axial length and is located at the channel exit. The numerical results were validated using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) measurements and visualization techniques realized for laminar airflow through an acrylic channel. The percent difference between numerical and experimental results is around 6%, giving an excellent approximation and therefore validating the numerical procedure. Numerical results presented in this work clearly show the tri-dimensionality of the flow structures at the vicinity of the step for the aspect and contraction radio considered.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

7. THE INFLUENCE OF LOCAL TAXES AND LEVIES TOWARDS EXPENDITURE ALLOCATION IN KOTA GORONTALO, INDONESIA
by Walidun Husain
Abstract

The objective of this research is to measure the effect of local taxes and levies toward the local expenditure allocation either partially or simultaneously in Kota Gorontalo, Indonesia.

Descriptive method is used to analyze the data by using multiple regression analysis. The data of this research are mainly in the form of the attainment of both local taxes and levies as well as its expenses during 2009-2011 taken from DPPKAD (DinasPendapatanPengelolanKeuangandanAset Daerah / Local Finance, Assets, and Revenues Office.

The results show that local taxes and levies are significantly and positively affect the local expenditure allocation either partially or simultaneously in Kota Gorontalo.
Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

8. BIOMETRIC SOLVENCY RISK FOR PORTFOLIOS OF GENERAL LIFE CONTRACTS (III) DEPENDENT LIVES
by Werner Hürlimann
Abstract

We consider the endowment contract on two lives under mortality risk. In practice actuarial values of the tariff book are calculated under the simplifying assumption of independent future lifetimes. It is known that this assumption overestimates the joint-life net single and level premiums and underestimates the last-survivor net single and level premiums, where the maximal deviations are obtained by perfect positive dependence using the Höffding-Fréchet upper bound. As a novel application, we discuss the impact of positive dependent lives on solvency calculations using a stochastic approach to the insurance risk and compare results with those of the current QIS5 standard approach. For a portfolio consisting of a single cohort of last-survivorship endowment contracts on two dependent lives, we show that the independence assumption underestimates insurance risk economic capital and calculate a non-parametric approximation of it based on the knowledge of the Spearman’s correlation coefficient as well as its maximal deviation from the independence assumption.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

9. THE ANTI-REFLEXIVE SOLUTIONS OF THE MATRIX EQUATION AXB=C IN MINKOWSKI SPACE M
by D. Krishnaswamy & G. Punithavalli
Abstract

 

In this paper we study the existence of anti-reflexive with respect to the generalized reflection anti-symmetric matrix  P~ and solution of the Matrix equation  AXB=C in Minkowski Space M.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

10. SIMPLER FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER (SFLC) DESIGN FOR 3DOF LABORATORY SCALED HELICOPTER
by Arbab Nighat Khizer, Dai Yaping & Xu Xiang Yang
Abstract

Generally helicopter dynamics are highly nonlinear, mutually coupled and time varying therefore a big challenge for control designers is to design their stable control with less complexity. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to attain the stable control as well as to reduce the complexity of a controller using fuzzy logic. The three degree of freedom (3DOF) laboratory helicopter is a multi input multi output (MIMO), under actuated mechanical system is used as a controlled object. This work is motivated by the increasing demand from the industrial site to design highly reliable, efficient and low complexity controllers. This fuzzy controller with triangular membership functions and simple tuning method leads to a simpler fuzzy logic controller (SFLC). Performance of proposed SFLC is evaluated against the conventional controllers. Simulation results show that proposed controller has superior performance in steady state (reducing 8-10% overshoot and 2-6% settling time) as compared to the performance of traditional PID, LQR and conventional fuzzy controller. Introducing simpler approach in conventional fuzzy controller gives stable control with no more controller design complexity.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

11. 20 SUPPLY CHAIN FLEXIBILITY: THE MAKE TO STOCK-BASED PRODUCTION SYSTEM
by Rachmad Hidayat
Abstract

The purpose of this study is to measure and identify several factors that likely affect supply chain flexibility, so that we can know flexibility of supply chain system that may need improvement and will have considerable impact on the increased flexibility of our supply chain system. The results had showed the levels of supply chain flexibility  amounted to 80.97% and the levels of the supply chain flexibility for several main dimensions were shown as follows:  Product design (83.12%), Delivery System (82.80%), Production System (80.25%) and Supplier System (77.72%), respectively. And the five priorities of improvement were shown as follows: the number of products that can be manufactured without increasing the costs of the  production machines (PS2); developing the high-quality product design quickly (PD1); the use of the existing production capacity for carrying out current production  (PS4); the procedure that undertaken for new product design that will be issued (PD5); and repairing the broken-down of machines immediately (PS3).

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

12. RICE HUSK ASH REFRACTORY: THE TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT CRYSTALLINE PHASE ASPECTS
by A.D. Onojah, N.A. Agbendeh & C. Mbakaan
Abstract

Cylindrical blocks of Rice Husk Ash thermal insulators were made using die pressing method. The husks were burnt in an open environment and the resulting black ash heated in a carbolite furnace at a controlled temperature of 650OC. The initial impurities of the resulting milky white RHA were determined by XRF technique. The RHA were subsequently mixed with binders and sintered at a temperature range of 1000 to 1400­C.  X-ray diffraction (XRD) Spectroscopy was carried out to determine the major crystallographic phases. Two crystalline silica phases, tridymite and cristobalite were dominant. Crystallite size of the insulators at this range of temperature varies from 6nm to 10.02nm depending on the dominant phase.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

13. EXTENSIONAL EXPANSION METHOD AND NEW EXACT SOLUTIONS FOR (N+1)–DIMENSIONAL C-I EQUATION
by Xiu-xiu Wang, Ze-jian Cui & Shi-qiang Feng
Abstract

By using the extensional -expansion method for studying the complex –valued (n+1)-dimensional Chafee-Infante equation, three types of new exact solutions of complex-valued Chafee-Infante equation have been found, and the exact solutions of  constant state  (n+1)-dimensional Chafee-Infante equation have been gotten.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

14. ENHANCEMENT OF COMMUNICATION QUALITY IN MULTIPLE USERS SCENARIO IN ON-BODY CHANNELS THROUGH THE USING OF INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION TECHNIQUES
by Khalida Ghanem, Salim Garoudja, Soumia Makrelouf, Imdad Khan & Peter. S Hall
Abstract

As the body-are networks will probably operate in a multiuser context in the near future, interference cancellation techniques will be an important part of the communication system. To address this, a multi-user environment is emulated by using real time measurements of one interferer walking around the desired user in an indoor environment.  For the interference mitigation part, two modified versions of the Wiener-Hopf and optimum combining approaches are adopted for weight calculation in two on-body wireless communication channels. The two channels are generated by placing the transmit antenna at the belt position and the receive antenna at the head and chest positions thus forming the belt-head and the belt-chest links. The interference rejection capability of these two algorithms is evaluated through the output signal-to-interference-plus-noise (SINR) ratio enhancement. It is shown that in this particular indoor environment, and due to the channel correlation, the achieved interference rejection capacity of the Wiener-Hopf solution is limited particularly in the belt-chest channel unlike the optimum combining which exhibits a high robustness to multiple access interference.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

15. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF REDUCED ROUND COMPRESSION FUNCTIONS OF SHA-3 FINALISTS
by Fatih Sulak, Baris Ege & Onur Koçak
Abstract

National Institute of Standards and Technology announced a competition in 2008, of which the winner was acknowledged as the new hash standard SHA-3. There were 5 finalist algorithms which are selected among 51 first round candidates. In this paper, we apply statistical analysis to the finalists by using two different methods, and observe how conservative the algorithms are in terms of randomness. The first method evaluates 256-bit outputs, obtained from reduced round versions of the algorithms, through statistical randomness tests. On the other hand, the second method evaluates the randomness of the reduced round compression functions based on certain cryptographic properties. This analysis gives a rough idea on the security factor of the compression functions.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

16. INTRODUCING A NEW NATURAL PRODUCT FROM DRAGON FRUIT INTO THE MARKET
by Nazli Moshfeghi, Omid Mahdavi, Fatemeh Shahhosseini, Shaghayegh Malekifar & Seyedeh Khadijeh Taghizadeh
Abstract

Natural source of food additives play prominent role in improvinghuman health conditions. However, importance and application of these additives have been widely neglected in food industry and its sub sectors. This paper is aimed to introduce Dragon FruitColoring Powder named (DFCP) as a natural food additive using dragon fruit albedo. It is expected to be tremendously healthy and attractive especially for consumer, since, dragon fruit is an edible fruit with water-soluble fiber and has high source of vitamin C.The albedo of dragon fruit was dried using conventional method to color rice, milk, yoghurt, juice, and pastry. Developing DFCP as the natural food colorants is not only healthy for human body, but also is friendly for society and environment. DFCPis estimated to be cost effective, as it is sourced from the only disposable part (peel) of the fruit. Further, since process of DFCPpreparation does not affect the natural benefit of dragon fruit, the original nutritional values of the fruit will still be preserved.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

17. COMPARISON BETWEEN ADOMIAN METHOD AND LAST SQUARE METHOD FOR SOLVING HIV/AIDS NON-LINEAR SYSTEM
by Meraihi Mouna & Rahmani Fouad Lazhar
Abstract

In this paper we present a simple methods to solve a differential equation system applying Adomian decomposition method and power series.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

18. THE DIFICLTIES THAT PREVENT FROM BENEFIT FROM JUST IN TIME SYSTEM IN PRIVATE INDUSTERIAL SECTOR IN LIBYA
by Entsar Kouni Mohamed & Abdul Talib Bon
Abstract

The importance of new and modern systems in the industrial world has increased in this decade because of the advantages that they bring to the companies and factories. Just in time system is considered as one of these new systems that receive more attention than others in developed countries, however developing countries are still unaware of the importance of this system because of the difficulties that prevent this system from being successful.  There are many factors that control the success of just in time implementation; human is considered one of the important   factors that prevent just in time understanding, and the suppliers are one of the difficulties that face JITS implementation, in addition to the importance of the inventory to ensure continuous production in tradition manufacturing systems, which is not allowed in the philosophy of this system. To overcome all these difficulties all issues are related to these factors must be understood, starting from choosing the right and better workers and make them multi-skills workers, to find the right suppliers that have the ability to provide the needed material at the right time, finally try to decrease all inventory types and unvalued activities to the lowest possible level.

 

This study highlights the difficulties that prevent this modern manufacturing system application in the private industrial sector in Libya, which is one of the largest petroleum countries in the world, and its strategic location in the southern Mediterranean coast line has made it one of the biggest exporting countries for more than five decades in Africa.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

19. APPLICATION OF NATURAL CLAYS AND POLY ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE (PAC) FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
by Mohammed Awad, Fengting Li & Wang Hongtao
Abstract

Release of wastewater into the environment due to anthropogenic industrial or commercial activities is an emerging challenge for developing countries. This study was conducted to investigate the use of two kinds of available clay coagulants namely Shendi and Singa, and their combination with Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) for wastewater treatment. The experiments were designed in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) in three replicates using jar test apparatus for coagulation-flocculation process. The efficiency was calculated by evaluating turbidity, COD, and colour removal. The removal efficiency for PAC and its combined use with Shendi and Singa for turbidity was 96.2%, 94.8%, and 95.7%, for COD was 70.7%, 63.2%, and 61.1% and for colour removal was 82.1%, 78.1% and 80.7% respectively. While the efficiency of sole use of Shendi and Singa for turbidity was 59.2% and 27.9%, for COD was 26.3% and 28.1% and for colour was 26.3% and 10.3% respectively.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

20. SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF AZO DYES DERIVED FROM 2-AMINO-1, 3,4-THIADIAZOLE-2-THIOL ON POLYESTER FIBRE
by J.O. Otutu
Abstract

The synthesis and application of azo dyes derived from 2-Amino-1, 3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol on polyester fibre are described.  The absorption maxima of the dyes were dependent upon the substituents in the diazo and coupling components and varied from 351 to 777 nm in DMF.  Polyester fabric was successfully dyed with the synthesized dyes.  The dyes showed good to excellent fastness properties on polyester fabrics, indicating that they have affinity for it.  The spectral properties (IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and visible spectra) of obtained dyes are reported.  The results of the electronic absorption spectra of dyes obtained from heterocyclic diazo and coupling components showed that they could act as organic photoconductors.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013

21. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF SOME HETARYL DISAZO AND TRISAZO DISPERSE DYE DERIVATIVES OF 2-AMINO-5-NITROTHIAZOLE AND 1-NAPHTHYLAMINE
by J.O. Otutu
Abstract

This paper is concerned with the synthesis and evaluation of some hetaryl disazo and trisazo disperse dyes.  They were synthesized via diazotization of 2-amino-5-nitrothiazole followed by the coupling with 1-naphtylamine.  The monoazo dye obtained was diazotized and coupled with other diazo and coupling components to afford disazo and trisazo dyes respectively.  The spectra properties ( 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and visible spectra) of obtained dyes are reported.  The basic fastness properties (light fastness, wet fastness and sublimation or dry heat treatment) of the dyes on polyester fibre and acrylic fibre are also discussed in terms of their chemical structure.  The dyes showed good build up, levelling and fastness properties on acrylic fabrics but poor levelling on polyester fabrics.  The electronic absorptions in the near infrared region of some of the dyes suggests that they could be potential candidates as organic photoconductors.

Source: International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
May 2013 -- Vol. 15 Issue 2 -- 2013













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