Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 14, Issue 1 (January, 2013)

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1. DATA ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF RADIATION PORTAL MONITORING
by Tom Burr & Michael S. Hamada
Abstract

Passive gamma and neutron detectors screen for illicit special nuclear material in vehicles crossing borders between countries. This paper illustrates how statistical analysis of archived detector data can help to evaluate special nuclear material detection probabilities and to investigate several issues, including drifting background, background gamma suppression, nuisance alarms arising from either naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) or cosmic ray bursts, and detector quality control.  Statistical techniques described include data smoothing, cosmic ray filtering of neutron alarms, quantile estimation, and pattern recognition. New data analysis of gamma energy spectra suggests that NORM recognition using deployed detectors is difficult.


2. GLUCURONIC ACID CONTAINING FERMENTED FUNCTIONAL BEVERAGES PRODUCED BY NATURAL YEASTS AND BACTERIA ASSOCIATIONS

by Ilmara Vina, Pavels Semjonovs, Raimonds Linde & Arturs Patetko

Abstract

Synthesis of glucuronic acid, well-known as significant detoxicant, by natural Kombucha associations has been studied. The aim of this review is to overview the possibility to obtain Kombucha-like healthy beverages with a high content of glucuronic acid by the integration of several optimal conditions of fermentation system.

The article demonstrates the obtaining of fermented beverages with a high content of glucuronic acid by applying natural associations of bacteria and yeasts, known as Kombucha, for the proof of the concept that synthesis of glucuronic acid is a characteristic property of Kombucha symbiosis.  A direct relationship between the Kombucha fermentation process conditions, composition of the fermentation medium and the yield of glucuronic acid has been proved. The initial hypothesis of this review about glucuronic acid synthesis as a property of Kombucha, regardless of the origin and composition of the symbiosis used, has been confirmed. The experimental studies overviewed have confirmed the assumption that it is possible to increase the yield of glucuronic acid by changing fermentation medium and independent variable conditions of the process.


3. A THEORETICAL MODEL OF STABLE DARK ENERGY STARS
by Manuel Malaver & María Esculpi
Abstract

In this paper we present a relativistic static and spherically symmetric dark energy stellar configuration consisting of an interior anisotropic fluid governed by a dark energy like equation of state matched to an exterior Schwarzschild vacuum solution through a thin shell. A mass function depending on an adjustable parameter is imposed to solve the Einstein field equations. Physical properties and stability of the obtained new family of solutions is further explored.


4. ESTIMATIONS ON VaR FOR OPTIONS: EXTENSION OF DELTA-GAMMA METHOD
by Shu-Ing Liu
Abstract

This paper provides an analytical formula for estimating the Value-at-Risk (VaR) of options. Based on the Black-Scholes option pricing formula, the increment of the option price is explicitly expressed in an infinite series by the Taylor expansion technique, and convenient full evaluations on VaR for options are obtained. Following this, the accuracy of the popularly used delta-gamma approximation is analytically and numerically examined by some examples. The results reveal that the delta-gamma method may underestimate or overestimate depending upon the ratio of the current asset and the strike price. Besides, in out-of-the-money cases, the examined results indicate by way of the delta-gamma method that while VaR misestimating is more significant for put options, they are less significant for call options.


5. SPECTRAL METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION TO A CAUCHY PROBLEM OF THE LAPLACE EQUATION
by Ai-lin Qian
Abstract

The Cauchy problem of Laplace equation is severely ill-posed problem. In this paper, A Cauchy problem for the Laplace equation in a rectangle is considered.


6. DES BLOCK OF 96 BITS: AN APPLICATION TO IMAGE ENCRYPTION
by Flores-Carapia R., Silva-García V.M. & Rentería-Márquez C.
Abstract

According to international standard norms, FIPS PUB 143, the Data Encryption Standard Cryptosystem (DES) uses a 64-bit input block. However, it is not difficult to extend the block to 96-bit encryption, which will be called DES-96. The cycle of encryption is achieved in similar times to DES. Developing DES-96, intends applyingFactorial Theorem, which in this case tells us that any permutation on an array of 96 positions can be constructed from 3 permutations over arrays of 64 positions. According to theJV Theorem, given a number  with 0 ≤  ≤ 64! - 1 ≈ 1089, you can associate a permutation of 64 positions in 63 steps. This allows applying a variable permutation on an array of 96 positions at the start of the third round, using 3 numbers  with 0 ≤  ≤ 1089 and for  = 1, 2, 3, instead of using numbers 0 ≤  ≤ 96 ! - 1 ≈ 10150 for permutations on arrays of 96 positions directly. The DES-96 algorithm is illustrated with an application in the encryption of colour images, which is carried out without loss of information, i.e. JPG formats are not applied. The latter may have problems encrypting the images with a permutation and fixed key, revealing contours and giving information.

Using an input variable permutation for the third round, results in approximately uniform distribution tones of red, green and blue colours. It is used as a measure of randomness for the value of Chi-square χ2. It also shows that the DES-96 algorithm conforms to the property of being a one to one function.

7. THE FEATURES OF PROTEIN BINDING BY RUTHENIUM COMPLEXES: DOCKING, FORCE FIELD AND QM/MM STUDIES
by Pankaj Hazarika, B. Bezbaruah, J. Deka, R.P. Deka, O.K. Medhi & C. Medhi
Abstract  

The ruthenium complexes are known for their anticancer property. Some ruthenium complexes can bind with protein that may be related to the anticancer activity. The protein binding features of few ruthenium complexes have been analyzed to understand the amino acid selectivity within protein sequences. The docking, Molecular mechanics and QM/MM methods are used to predict the binding sites of these ruthenium complexes. The fluorinated ruthenium pyridocarbazole is a protein binding complex. The cis-chlorodimethylsulphoxide-S-bis(1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium (II) chloride [RuN(B)], trichlorodimethylsulphoxide-S-(1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium (III) [RuN(C)] and cis-dichlorotetrakis(dimethylsulphoxide) ruthenium (II) [RuN(D)] complexes can bind perfectly within fluorinated ruthenium pyridocarbazole is binding region. The complexes are found selective of certain amino acids, and the formation hydrogen bonds within the complex bonded region are found.


8. RENORMALIZED SOLUTIONS FOR NONLINEAR PARABOLIC SYSTEMS WITH THREE UNBOUNDED NONLINEARITIES IN WEIGHTED SOBOLEV SPACES
by Y. Akdim, J. Bennouna, A. Bouajaja & M. Mekkour
Abstract

We prove an existence result for a class of nonlinear parabolic systems with three unbounded nonlinearities. Without assumptions on the growth of some nonlinear terms, we prove the existence of a renormalized solution.


9. LOOKING BEYOND THE GAP OF AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE: STATES TEST AND TEXT BOOK DRIVEN CURRICULUM UNSKILL MATHEMATICS TEACHERS
by Nosisi N. Feza
Abstract

African American students’ mathematics poor performance has historical origins of oppression that has been strengthened by lack of implementation of suggested reforms. Interventions and reforms have suggested relevant pedagogy for minority students. However, classroom practices continue to alienate these students. This paper elicits the powerful factors that impede progress in implementing cultural relevant pedagogy for African American students and other students in general. Observations, informal interviews and cultural artifacts were employed data sources to elicit factors that inhibit mathematics learning these students were exposed to. The classroom practice of two fifth grade teachers indicate that State tests and textbook based instruction take precedence in teaching mathematics regardless of teacher awareness of the African American students’ needs. Therefore this paper argues that State test and textbook based instruction deprofessionalise teachers in mathematics classroom and hinder learning opportunities.


10. THE IMPACT OF ELECTRONIC PAYMENT ON SAUDI BANKS PROFITABILITY: CASE STUDY OF SADAD PAYMENT SYSTEM
by Minwer M. AL-Adwan, Mahmoud AL-Zyood & Mohammad Ishfaq
Abstract

Electronic payment system has made significant impact on banks Profitability in general and in Saudi Arabia in particular. Our study in this respect reveals that banks profitability predominantly capitalizes on e-payment pillars such comprisingConvenience, Choices Verities, Cost Reduction, Speedy Payments, Security, and Accessibility. This paper presents a case study of Saudi electronic payment system (SADAD)to analyze its impact on the Saudi banks' profitability. SADAD was initiated by the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) to be the national Electronic Bill Presentment and Payment (EBPP) service provider for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The main objective of SADAD is to facilitate and modernize bills payment transactions for end consumers through all channels of the Kingdom’s Banks. The electronic payment (SADAD) system’s impact is studied with reference to banks profitability by mainly focusing on Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE). This study presents varied opinion on e-banking and profitability which is apparently divided into three groups i.e. one group argues there is no link between technology and profitability, the second group argues the opposite while third group agrees that there is link between profitability and technology with reference to network impact. We in this study have followed this line of arguments and present an empirical study of Saudi e-payment system (SADAD); firstly by developing pillars of electronic payment system based on literature survey, secondly examining the impact of electronic payment on the banks profitability based on empirical data collected in Saudi Arabia and finally develops relationship between e-payment pillars and pillars of bank profitability.This study is built on hypothesis, tests and analyses of the results to reach at conclusions.


11. TREND OF POVERTY INTENSITYIN IRAN
by F. Bagheri & M.S. Avazalipour
Abstract

Income inequality among poor people, average income of poor people, poverty line, total number of the poor and total population  are the factors that affect poverty intensity and any difference in each of them causes difference in the size of poverty intensity. Among them, SST Index is an appropriate instrument to measure the poverty intensity. This index can measure the poverty intensity considering number of the poor and depth of poverty and inequality among them.In this paper, first the absolute poverty line based on 2300 calories for urban and rural areas, then the SST Index and its components -the poverty rate, average poverty gap ratio of the poor, and a measure that is related to the Gini index of poverty gap ratios- are calculated for the period of 1991-2010. Moreover for calculation of these indexes the data from the Statistical Center of Iran’s Household Expenditure and Income Survey were used

The poverty intensity in 2010 compared with that in 1991reduced from 13.1 to 7.3 percent in urban areas. In rural areas, the poverty intensity reduced from 28.1 to 7.5 percent.

Intensity of poverty in rural and urban areas in 20 years (1991-2010) has found a marked reduction and a major cause of this decrease is due to reduction of poverty rate. In addition, the decrease of poverty intensity over the 20 years has been higher in rural areas than in urban areas.


12. ON THE RATE OF RETURNS, THE RISK AND THE DISTRBUTION OF F0REX MARKET INVESTMENT
by Bright O. Osu & Vine Madukpe
Abstract

The foreign exchange market (currency market, FX or forex) is a form of exchange for the global decentralized trading of international currencies. The foreign exchange market determines the relative values of different currencies. One of the characteristics that make the FX unique is its huge volume representing the largest asset class in the world leading to high liquidity. This liquidity is independent of regional trading sessions. Fixed income traders are active in the markets, buying and selling securities to influence prices, and thereby interest rates. This means that the trader is either paying out or receiving interest on their position, depending on whether the interest rate differential is for or against them. The interest rate differential is what we refer to as rate of returns. In this paper we consider the rate of return, defined here as the net accumulation of the forex broker (an investor) on investing on this market and we suggest a formula for determining this rate of return. Risk is always involved financial markets, so we also consider risk involved in this market and develop a risk measure and an index to determine the risk type when occurred. Furthermore we show that the distribution of this return rate follows Logistic distribution.


13. EFFECT OF GLUCOSE AS STABILIZER OF ZNO AND CDO NANOPARTICLES ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES
by Nobathembu Faleni & Makwena Justice Moloto
Abstract

Most organic stabilizers for semiconductor nanoparticles used such as hexadecylamine, troctylphosphine oxide, alkylpyridine, organic thiols, oleic acids etc. are water insoluble and not biocompatible. Zinc and cadmium oxide nanoparticles give significant stability under the influence of any type of stabilizer. Glucose is a sugar molecule with both water solubility and biocompatibility and is used as capping for the CdO and ZnO nanoparticles. The synthesis of the nanoparticles was carried out in an alcoholic medium The amount of glucose is varied from 0.25 g to 1.00 g to study its influence on the morphologies and optical properties of the zinc and cadmium oxide nanoparticles. The morphologies of the nanoparticles were characterized by TEM images and the optical properties were analysed using UV-Visible spectrophotometry and photoluminescence, which shows the general blue shift in their absorption features and red shifts of the emission maxima. The use of glucose as stabilizer for nanoparticles provide route for direct synthesis of semiconductor nanoparticles especially at lower glucose amount to avoid its crystallinity obscuring the particles crystallinity.


14. DEVE LOPING A SPEECH PRODUCTION MATHEMATICAL MODEL IN TERMS OF THE Z-TRANSFORM FOR SPEECH RECOGNITON IMPLEMENTATION IN THE COMPUTER
by Majed Ismail Hussein
Abstract

The use of speech  recognition systems allow messages to interact with the computer in natural it is possible to solve Voice control of the computing process(such as speech input commands WINDOWS), Voice control of various technical systems, Automatic entry of textual information in the personal computer to fill in the various documents databases. The use of speech recognition providers Increasing management efficiency through the use of verbal interaction channel (average specialist computer systems from the keyboard can enter only 10-20 words    / min ,and the voice can convey 100-200  words /min) A mathematical model of speech production can be described in terms of Z-transform in order to implement it on a computer in the form of the relationship.


15. KETOPROFEN ENCAPSULATION OPTIMIZATION WITH CHITOSAN-ALGINATE CROSS-LINKED WITH SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE AND ITS REALEASE MECHANISM DETERMINATION USING IN VITRO DISSOLUTION
by Purwantiningsih Sugita, Laksmi Ambarsari, Yeni Arum Sari & Yogi Nugraha
Abstract

Encapsulation optimization of ketoprofen with chitosan-alginate matrix cross-linked with sodium tripolyphosphate (STTP) and determination of its release mechanism has been carried out in succession by sonication-centrifugation method and  in vitro dissolution test, respectively. The matrix is made by varying the concentration of chitosan, alginate and STTP using Box-Benhken design method. Ketoprofen mixing with chitosan matrix sonication performed at 20kHz frequency of ultrasonic waves for 30 mintues and centrifuged at 15 000 rpm speed (27200 x g) for 20 minutes. Determination of coating efficiency, the amount of chitosan nanoparticles and the kinetics associated with release mechanism performed using spectrograph-photometer UV/VIS, SEM and in vitro dissolution test, respectively. The result of the matrix constituent optimization was two formula being elected, F and M formula with composition of chitosan, alginate and STPP, respectively are 1.75% (w/v), 0.75% (w/v), 5.0% (w/v) and 1:50% (w/v), 0.625% (w/v), 4.0% (w/v). The efficiency of coating for both formula are 80.43% and 78.84% respectively with average particle size ranged from 200-8000 nm, and the nanoparticle percentage are 23.90% and 26.81%, respectively. Encapsulation of both formulas shows that the drugs release is controlled in both acidic and alkaline medium. Ketoprofen release kinethic from nanoparticle matrix for F and M formula in acidic medium followed the model of the first-order kinetics and Hixson-Crowell respectively, while in alkaline medium it followed Hixson-Crowell and order 0 model respectively.


16. BIOREMEDIATION OF EFFLUENT WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT BOJONGSOANG BANDUNG INDONESIA USING CONSORSIUM AQUATIC PLANTS AND ANIMALS
by Wibowo Mangunwardoyo, Tony Sudjarwo & Mufti Petala Patria
Abstract

Volume of domestic or household waste increased by 5 millions meter cubic per year, with an increase in the average content of up to 50%. Components in the domestic waste water can lead to imbalances disrupt aquatic ecosystems and human health, such as the presence of Escherichia coli, and the possible presence of hazardous substances such as elemental N, P, As, Cr, and Se which can lead to poisoning of fish, birds and mammals. Bioremediation is the application of biotechnology domestic wastewater utilizing living things include plants and animals as agents of degrading pollutants. This research uses a consortium of Eichhornia crassipes (F1), Salvinia molesta (F2), Ceratophyllum demersum (F3), as well as aquatic animals Anodonta woodiana (Z1) and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Z2) because it has a high potential to degrade or absorbing compounds in domestic wastewater. Experiments using Randomized Complete Design (RCD), 12 treatments and 3 replicates. Observed levels of efficiency (Ef) and the rate of degradation (Ld) or rate of gradation (Lg). Observations of turbidity, color and froth domestic wastewater done for 14 days. Testing or measurement of physical and chemical properties at day-0, the 1st, 3rd and 5th. The results revealed a consortium F1F2F3Z1Z2 on turbidity Ef 86%Ld 14 mg/L/day, BOD Ef 70%Ld 19 mg/L/day, COD Ef 67%Ld 31 mg/L/day and clear the fastest on day 4; consortium F2F3Z2 on ammonia Ef 95%Ld 0.62 mg/L/day, nitric Ef 91%Ld 0.11 mg/L/day and the lowest gradation TDSEf 0%Ld 0 mg/L/day, F1F2F3Z1 consortium gradation lowest TSS Ef 50%Lg 1 mg/L/day, and a consortium F1F3Z1 Ef 77%Ld 1.30 mg/L/day in nitrate.


17. ON THE LOCAL PROPERTY OF GENERAL INDEXED SUMMABILITY OF A FACTORED FOURIER SERIES
by Mahendra Misra, B.P.Padhy, Dattaram Bisoyi & U.K.Misra
Abstract

In this paper we have established a theorem on the local property of summability of  a factored Fourier series.  


18. FIXED POINT THEOREM IN FUZZY METRIC SPACE WITH THE PROPERTY (E.A.)
by Arihant Jain, Nirmala Gupta & V.K.Gupta
Abstract

In this paper, we prove a common fixed point theorem for semi-compatible and weakly compatible mappings in Fuzzy metric space using the property (E.A.) and implicit relation. Our result generalizes the result of Singh and Jain [14].


19. DETERMINATION OF APPARENT APATITE GRADE BY DIGITAL IMAGE ANALYSIS
by André Carlos Silva, Elenice Maria Schons Silva, Luciano Nunes Capponi & Danielle Flavia de Gouvea
Abstract

According to the Brazilian Department of Mineral Production the phosphate rock world production in 2010 was something about 176 millions of tons and the national production were 6.192 millions of tons. The Brazilian phosphate rock production is concentrate in alkaline-carbonate complexes localized in Tapira, Araxá, Catalão and Cajati counties. It is well known that the greater comprehension of the mineral intrinsic characteristics lead to a good understand in processing of this mineral. This paper presents a mineralogical characterization and apatite grade estimation using digital image analysis. Different samples of phosphate rock from the primary grinding homogenization stock pile were used. The samples were donated by Vale Fertilizantes Company (which was responsible for 72% of the Brazilian production of phosphate rock in 2010), situated in Catalão-GO. The samples was dried, granulometric classified using a Tyler screen series and photographed using a digital camera coupled in a stereoscopic microscope (with increase of 10X/20). A software using Borland Delphi 7 was developed to perform the analysis of the digital images acquired using a colorimetric differentiation. The mineralogical grades of apatite determined through the software were compared to the grade determined through chemical analysis of twin samples to the characterized. The found results indicated that the digital image analysis can be used as a complementary technique to the actually mineral characterization methods, such as the chemical methods, once this analysis is faster and cheaper than the others methods and it is a non-destructible method.


20. STATIC AND DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF TAPERED BEAMS ON TWO-PARAMETER FOUNDATION
by Mohamed Taha Hassan & Mohamed Nassar
Abstract

The static and dynamic behaviors of tapered beams resting on two-parameter foundations are studied using the differential quadrature method (DQM). The governing differential equations are derived and discretized; then the appropriate boundary conditions are discretized and substituted into the governing differential equations yielding a system of homogeneous algebraic equations. The equivalent two-parameter eigenvalue problem is obtained and solved for critical loads in the static case (w=0) and natural frequencies in the dynamic case with a prescribed value of the axial load (Po<Pcr). The obtained solutions are found compatible with those obtained from other techniques. A parametric study is performed to investigate the significance of different parameters.


21. 2-WEAK AMENABILITY OF THE SECOND DUAL OF A BANACH ALGEBRADR
by A. Zivari-Kazempour & M. Fallah
Abstract

 In this paper we show that the second adjoint of D is also a derivation if we consider the fourth dual of A as a Banach A'' bimodule with the natural module structures.


22. ANALGESIAC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIDIARRHOEAL EFFECTS OF DATURA STRAMONIUM HYDROALCOHOLIC LEAVES EXTRACT IN MICE
by Duraid A. Abbas
Abstract

Three experiments were performed, Exp-1 and Exp-2 were designed to study the antidiarrhoeal  effect and the effect on enteropooling induced by castor oil for two treated groups (T1&T2) orally dosed with Datura stramonium leaves hydroethanolic extract at 50 and 100mg/Kg BW.   compared with IP dosed atropine sulphate and control groups , each consist of 6 mice. Exp-1 results showed that both  DS extract doses caused a dose dependent antidiarrhoeal effect manifested  by significant decrease in charcoal intestinal travelling distance and percent (ITP) which is similar to atropine sulphate (0.1mg/kgBW IP) for the high DS extract dose. While Ex-2 results showed the superiority of DS extract via decreasing the intestinal castor oil enteropooling effect than atropine sulphate (0.3mg/Kg BW) possibily because the DS extract may have another active mechanism beside its antimuscarinic effect due to its tropane alkaloids content . In Exp—3 same dosed DS   groups were used to study the analgesic effect by using hot plate method and anti-inflammatory effect that measured by using formalin test  compared with Tramado HCL at 40 mg/Kg IP and  Diclofenac( 0.75mg/Kg BW IP )as reference drug. The results of hot plate indicate a dose dependent effect for both DS doses resembling that of tramadol HCL in their antinoiciceptive effect versus time   indicating that the extract have a central analgesic effect probably by narcotic and non narcotic mechanism while the formalin results for both DS doses at the early and late phase indicate clearly their analgesic and anti inflammatory effect due to its phytochemical contents.


23. CLASSIFICATION OF THE THEORIES OF ELASTIC MEDIA WITH MICRO STRUCTURE
by Ayaz Ahmad
Abstract

In this paper we discuss that the couple – stress theories can be considered as a long wave – length approximation of a more general non local theory of elasticity  closely connected with the theory of crystal lattice . Theories of media with microstructure are considerably more complicated than the classical theory oy elasticity, although we reduce to this certain limits. Our  application is justifiable only when we describe qualitatively new effect s which are not derivable from the local theory.

Here we give a brief classification of the theories of elastic media with micro structure .Explicit or implicit non locality is the charectrastic feature of all classification of the theories of elastic media .We follows an explicit consideration of microstructure effects with the simultaneous consideration of non locality.


24. PLACED NEAR THE FERMAT PRIMES AND THE FERMAT COMPOSITE NUMBERS
by Ikorong Anouk Gilbert Nemron
Abstract

In this paper, we show a Theorem which helps to characterize the Fermat primes and the Fermat composite numbers.














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