Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 13, Issue 3 (December, 2012)

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1. GLOBAL HYBRID METHOD FOR COMPUTING THE MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN A POINT AND A PLANE PARAMETRIC CURVE
by Zhinan Wu
Abstract

Global convergent hybrid method is presented for computing the minimum distance between a point and a plane parametric curve. First, It uses a first order geometric iteration method. If iterative parametric value satisfied local Newton convergence condition and convergence in appropriate area, then turning to Newton iteration method. This hybrid method’s sensitivity to the choice of initial values is nonexistence. Experimental results show that the algorithms under consideration are robust and efficient.


2. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF PRICING OF EUROPEAN CALL OPTION WITH STOCHASTIC VOLATILITY

by Freddy H. Marín Sánchez & Manuela Bastidas Olivares

Abstract

We propose a transformation that allows to build an explicit finite difference scheme for option pricing in stochastic volatility models. The scheme is second order in space and first order in time. We present conditions of positivity and monotonicity of the scheme. To test conditional stability results in the sense of von Neumann performing a Fourier analysis of the problem and follows the convergence of our scheme. We present some numerical experimental results for European call option pricing.


3. CREATING A DISRUPTIVE GAP IN INTEGRATED CIRCUIT MANUFACTURING THROUGH SUPPORTIVE R&D ACTIVITIES
by Pao-Long Chang, Chao-Jung Chang, Ying-Chyi Chou & Ching-Hua Lu
Abstract

The concept of supportive R&D activities is derived from major R&D activities, which would help semiconductor manufacturers to launch the revision and development of process equipment and achieve the ultimate benefit for solving problems with process interface. This study provides a discussion on implementation and processes of supported R&D activities, followed by a case description and ways to accelerate or improve the semiconductor process.


4. THE ROLE OF CHARGE ORDERING IN GALVANOMAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF THE LAYERED CRYSTALS
by Peter V. Gorskyi
Abstract

The overwhelming majority of theoretic and experimental works are devoted to physical characteristics of layered crystals with highly open Fermi surfaces (FS). Thus the majority of researchers believe that the layered structure of the crystal does not manifest itself if the FS is closed. In present work it has been shown that effects of layered structure in charge ordered crystals manifest themselves in galvanomagnetic phenomena not only for open FS, but for closed one. For this purpose the calculation of the longitudinal conductivity of the layered crystal is performed for two models of relaxation time: constant relaxation time and relaxation time proportional to the longitudinal velocity of the charge carriers. The role of topological transition from open FS to closed one in quantizing magnetic field is considered. The charge ordering in the longitudinal conductivity of the layered crystals in quantizing magnetic field manifests itself in the arise of new frequencies of the Shubnikov-de-Haas (SdH) oscillations, growth of the comparative contribution of the SdH oscillations into total longitudinal conductivity and the decrease of the total conductivity of the charge-ordered layered crystal in comparison with the disordered layered crystal. In both cases namely for charge-ordered and disordered layered crystals effects of layered structure manifest themselves in local maximum of the longitudinal conductivity for closed FS.        


5. ON THE BASIC QUALITATIVE ASPECTS OF ARITHMETIC
by Jorge Carrera-Bolaños
Abstract

In a world of computing, the question of the limits of computability takes grear importance and there have been a lot of attention to it. But no attention has been given to the theoretical origins of calculating. In this paper it is shown that there can be an Arithmetic (even if very restricted) without a calculating structure (the semigroup structure given by addition). This is done showing that there is a semantically closed proper subset of Peano’s axiom system that does not include addition but even so gives rise to what can be called a pre-arithmetical structure in the set of natural numbers. That means that the set of axioms defining the successor function builds a semantic entity independent of the axioms for addition; this concept is defined. Even if this is not a historical analysis, this situation implies that “counting” can be defined independent of “adding”. This discussion allows some interesting speculations concerning the possibility that human beings began “counting” as a qualitative process.


6. A BEAM ANALOGY PROCEDURE FOR STRENGTH OF INTERIOR SLAB-COLUMN CONNECTIONS OF UNBONDED POST-TENSIONED FLAT PLATES - PART B: COMPARISON WITH TEST RESULTS
by Shodolapo Oluyemi Franklin & Solomon Olukunle Ajayi
Abstract

In an earlier study the authors proposed a beam analogy procedure to assess the unbalanced bending moment strength of unbonded post-tensioned interior slab-column connections without shear reinforcement. In the present investigation the proposed approach is applied to a number of test results on post-tensioned slab connections reported in the literature. It is found that for connections subjected to pure shear or gravity loading, good predictions of the punching capacity are obtained; the mean value of test to calculated punching capacity is 0.98 with a standard deviation of 0.17. For the case of the relatively few slab-column connections subjected to shear and unbalanced moment loading, the predictions are quite conservative in most cases. The mean value of test to calculated unbalanced moment strength is 1.09, however a higher standard deviation of 0.39 is obtained. It is concluded that more realistic tests on post-tensioned slab-column connections are needed in order to verify the general applicability of the beam analogy approach. In addition it is suggested that the method should be refined to account for the influence of cracking on the torsion-shear interaction, in order to yield more consistent results.


7. ESTIMATION OF AIR-FUEL RATIO (AFR) IN A SPARK-IGNITION (SI) ENGINE FROM CYLINDER PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS
by Raghuram Pradhan, P. Ramkumar & Sukumar Suhan
Abstract  

This develops a method to estimate the Air/Fuel Ratio in a Spark-Ignition Engine from Cylinder Pressure Measurements. The method is developed from a well established empirical model for the dependence of laminar flame speed on temperature, pressure and air-fuel ratio and relates this model to the heat release rate during the rapid burn phase, which is obtained from the cylinder pressure, based net heat release profile. The net heat release profile is computed from the cylinder pressure trace and quantifies the conversion of chemical energy of the reactants in the charge into thermal energy. The net heat release profile does not take heat- or mass transfer into account. Cycle-averaged air/fuel ratio estimates over a range of engine speeds and loads show an RMS error of 4.1% compared to measurements in the exhaust.


8. EFFECTIVENESS FACTOR FOR POROUS CATALYSTS WITH SPECIFIC EXOTHERMIC AND ENDOTHERMIC REACTIONS UNDER LANGMUIR-HINSHELWOOD KINETICS
by Gabriel Ateiza Adagiri, Gutti Babagana & Alfred Akpoveta Susu
Abstract

The effectiveness factors of non-isothermal specific reactions of Langmuir-Hinshelwood expressions of real reacting systems were modeled through the specification of concentration and temperature profiles in the spherical catalyst pellet. The data obtained from Windes et al. [13] on the oxidation of formaldehyde over iron-oxide/molybdenum-oxide catalyst was used for the exothermic reaction, while vinyl acetate synthesis from the reaction of acetylene and acetic acid over palladium on alumina, as presented by Valstar et al. [14] was used for the endothermic reaction. The developed models were solved using orthogonal collocation numerical technique with third order semi-implicit Runge-Kutta method through FORTRAN programming. The results of the simulation of the experimental conditions for the exothermic reaction showed clearly that the effectiveness factor was at no point higher than unity, the same hold true for the endothermic reaction. However, as the temperature is reduced in the modeling effort, the exothermic effectiveness factors indicated an increasing maximum, as high as 98 for a Thiele modulus of about 0.06 where the reaction is diffusion free. This could be attributed to the opposing effects of the temperature and concentration profiles for the exothermic reaction where the concentration profile increased with increasing radius and the temperature profile showed the opposite effect.


9. QUALITY EVALUATION OF NOODLES PRODUCED FROM UNRIPE PLANTAIN FLOUR USING XANTHAN GUM
byOjure M.A & Quadri J.A
Abstract

This study was conducted in Ogun State, Nigeria to evaluate the quality of noodles produced from unripe plantain flour using xanthan gum. About 25kg of unripe (green) plantain (Musa paradisiacal normalis) variety was obtained. The fruits chosen were of grade 1 maturity stage (unripe) and with acceptable appearance for consumption and Xanthan gum were purchased from Chemicals’ market. Plantain noodles have ash content (2.40%), moisture content (8.20%), fat content (1.72%), crude fibre (1.62%), carbohydrate content (88.20%), protein content (3.60%), energy value of 345.2 kJ/g and Ph to be 5.8. Mean cooking time for PN3 was 7.62minutes, while that of PN2 is 7.10minutes, PN1 was cooked for 5.10minutes and PNO for 4.5minutes but the branded commercial noodles were cooked for 8.21 and 8.29minutes. Percentage cooking losses for the noodles were 6.60, 7.60, 8.40, 10.40, 6.52 and 6.39 for PN3(Plantain flour with 3.5xantham gum), PN2(Plantain flour with 2.5xantham gum), PN1(Plantain flour with 1.5xantham gum), PN0(Plantain flour without xantham gum), BN1(branded noodles 1) and BN2(branded noodles 2) respectively. PN3, PN2, PN1, PN0, BN1 and BN2 had 124.20, 115.25, 113.50, 105.50, 112.58, 111.30 rate of water absorption respectively. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the colour, starchy mouth coating, stickiness, firmness and smoothness of the cooked samples of noodles. In colour, both branded noodles 1 and 2 were found to have light yellow colour while noodles produced from plantain flour with or without xanthan gum (PNO) had the least colour grey (1.2). In terms of smoothness, the range was 1.5-4.2 but PN3 was found to be very smooth. The range of firmness values was (2.2-4.1) and PN3 was adjudged to be very firm among the noodle samples from plantain flour. The range of values for stickiness was (1.4-4.3), also PN3 was found not to be as sticky as other noodle samples produced from plantain flour. The range of values for starchy mouth feel was (1.6-4.2), moreover, PN3 was found to have the least starch mouth feel. The result showed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in all the sensory attributes (appearance, flavour, taste, texture and colour) examined among the noodles produced from plantain flours but significant difference (p<0.05) existed between the plantain noodle samples and the commercial branded noodles. The range of mean scores for taste was (1.0-4.7), flavour (1.5-4.6), texture (2.0-4.4), colour (1.2-4.2) and acceptability (2.0-4.6).  It can therefore be concluded that plantain noodles using 3.5% of xantham gum stand a good product at the end if other products can be incorporated (wheat, soya bean etc), so that attributes like flavor and taste will not only be improved but the product also will be nutritionally balanced.


10. A MODIFICATION IN PLITT´S FOR HYDROCYCLONES SIMULATION
by André Carlos Silva, Elenice Maria Schons Silva & Jainer Diogo Vieira Matos
Abstract

Hydrocyclones are devices worldwide used in mineral processing and used for desliming, classification, selective classification, thickening and pre-concentration. Versatile in application, the hydrocyclone is the standard classifier used in closed circuit milling in mineral processing plants. A hydrocyclone is composed by a cylindrical and a conical section joint together, without any moving parts and it is capable of perform granular material separation in pulp. The pulp is feed under pressure tangentially to the cylindrical section. The granular separation mechanism is complex and its mathematical modelling is empirical. The most used model for hydrocyclone dimensioning was proposed by Plitt (1976). Combining the first industrial database on cyclones generated at JKMRC with his own laboratory data, Plitt developed an alternative general- purpose cyclone model. Over the years many revisions and corrections to Plitt´s model were proposed. The present paper shows a modification in the Plitt´s model constant, obtained by exponential regression of simulated data for three different hydrocyclones geometries (Rietema, Bradley and Krebs). The proposed model validation used literature data obtained from phosphate ore using fifteen different hydrocyclones geometries. The proposed model shows a correlation equals to 88.2% between experimental and calculated corrected cut size, while the correlation obtained using Plitt´s model was 11.5%.


11. AN OVERVIEW ON THE BOX-PIERCE PORTMANTEAU TEST
by Dakhmouche Meghlaoui & Dakhmouche Farida Rosa
Abstract

The computation of the power of the portmanteau test and of its derivatives is not easy to perform because the distributions of the residuals  are not available under the alternative hypothesis. In order to quantify the effectiveness of this test, some specialists propose the computation of the expectation and of the variance of the statistic used. But this approach is not sufficient enough to have a clear idea about the power of the test. Therefore, the effectiveness of the portmanteau test and of its derivatives remains an unsolved problem. In this contribution, we propose to use the approximation of Toeplitz-Szegö of the likelihood of a process and to extend it to hypotheses testing problems. Thereby, we have attempted to resume some contributions on the continuous case that we have tried to innovate with the introduction of the Toeplitz-Szegö approximation. If we can determine the Neyman-Pearson test in exponential situations, then this test will be equivalent to the conventional tests such as the portmanteau test. Our main aim is to implement a definite form of Szegö’s theorem to obtain some approximation of the Wiener-Hopf equations which are easy to handle in the continuous case, and to extend the results of Dzaparidze and Pisarenko to this case.


12. QUASI-AROMATIC NATURE OF THE TAUTOMERIC UNITS OF SOME MALEIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMERS
by A.G. Filimoshkin, A.S. Kuchevskaya & O. Kh. Poleshchuk
Abstract

As a result of simultaneous joint transformations of repeating succinic anhydride (an) and adjacent vinyl chloride (or vinyl acetate) units the tautomeric enol (еn) and dienol (den) derivatives having quasi-aromatic character are formed. The еn and den units include high-energy ensembles СОН∙∙∙Cl (or СОН∙∙∙O) which take part in the cooperative interactions with nucleophilic reagents such as dimethyl formamide, NaNO2, NaN3 and others. Experimental assessment of the structure and reactivity of tautomeric units (IR, electron, 1Н and 13С NMR spectroscopy) is found to be consistent with the results of quantum-chemical (GAUSSIAN, B3LYP/6-31G(d); ADF, BP86/TZ2P) calculations. High energy transition state ensembles [d+СОН∙∙∙Cl]# (or [d+СОН∙∙∙O]#) appear to be the reaction centers of their interactions with DMF, NaNO2, NaN3 while reactions with the cyclic ethers (tetrahydrofuran, 1,4- dioxane) proceed via oxonium compounds.


13. EFFECT OF BATCHING METHODS ON THE FRESH AND HARDENED PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE
by Kolapo O. Olusola, Adewumi J. Babafemi, Akaninyene A. Umoh & Babatunde J. Olawuyi
Abstract

This paper investigated the effect of batching by mass and volume on concrete’s compressive strength and workability. Influence of mix proportion at five levels and various water-cement ratios were also studied. All samples were cured by complete immersion in water and tested up to 28 days. The results indicated higher workabilities for concrete batched by mass than concrete batched by volume at all w/c ratios and mix proportions investigated. The workability increased with increase in w/c ratios in both methods. The compressive strength results showed that for rich structural mixes (1:1:2 and 1:1.5:3), concrete batched by mass had 20 % and 6 % strength increases respectively over the concrete batched by volume. Ordinary structural mix (1:2:4) had 14 % increase while non-structural mixes (1:3:6 and 1:4:8) had 8 % and 6 % increases respectively. In all cases, concrete batched by mass had better fresh and hardened properties of concrete.


14. A NEW APPROACH ON SLOPE DATA ACQUISITION USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE
by Khairul Nizam Tahar
Abstract

This study proposes a generic approach for photogrammetric survey using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). UAV is one of the powerful equipment that can be used to obtain the earth surface images from certain altitude. UAV can provide a high quality data for GIS analysis. In this study, two persons are needed; UAV operator and ground crew station. A complete set of fixed wing UAV with autonomous flight was used to capture image from certain altitude at the study area.UAV operator is responsible to operate UAV during flight mission especially during launching and landing while ground crew station is responsible to monitor UAV attitude during flight mission. All acquired images were processed using photogrammetric software which applied all photogrammetric stages. Two primary results were produced such as digital elevation model and digital orthophoto. Digital elevation model and digital orthophoto was generated after the aerial triangulation process based on tie point measurement and ground control points. In this study, we have generated three dimensional model based on the UAV images. It was found that, UAV images were able to provide an accurate three dimensional model for GIS presentation. This study has successfully represented the result for GIS data using UAV images. UAV can be used as one of GIS data source in the future.


15. THE PHOTO – THERMAL THE UNIFIED THEORY OF COHERENT PHENOMENON OF ELECTRICITY AND HEAT
by Besnik Duriqi & Armend Salihu
Abstract

In this paper we will explain the coherent phenomenon of electricity and heat in the bodies. We will try to explain step by step what causes electricity and what causes heat in any body (metallic) radiated by light. Based on the law of conversation of energy, we will try to explain how the energy of any source of light gets transformed.


16. STUDY THE BEHAVIOR OF THE SOLUTION AND ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIORS OF EIGENVALUES OF A SIX ORDER BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM
by Karwan H.F. Jwamer & Aryan Ali. M.
Abstract

In this paper we study the behavior of the solution and asymptotic behavior of eigenvalues of a six order boundary value problem


17. BIANCHI TYPE I DUST FILLED UNIVERSE WITH DECAYING VACUUM ENERGY IN C-FIELD COSMOLOGY
by Raj Bali & Seema Saraf
Abstract

Bianchi Type I dust filled universe (p = 0) with time dependent vacuum energy density (L) in the presence of creation field (C-field) is investigated.


18. NEW TECHNIQUE TO DEAL WITH DYNAMIC DATA MINING IN THE DATABASE
by Hebah H.O. Nasereddin
Abstract

Data mining is a part of a process called KDD-Knowledge Discovery in Databases. This process consists basically of steps that are performed before carrying out data mining, such as data selection, data cleaning, pre-processing, and data transformation [1, 2]. There may be thousands or millions of records that have to be read and to extract the rules for, but the question is what will happen if there is new data, or there is a need to modify or delete some or all the existing set of data during the process of data mining. Also real-world databases are highly susceptible to noise, missing, and inconsistent data due to their typically huge size, often several gigabytes or more. The questions here are; how can the data be preprocessed in order to help improve the quality of the data, and consequently the mining results? How can the new updated data be preprocessed in order to help improve the quality of the data, efficiency, and simplify of the mining process? Therefore the purpose of this study is to find solutions (Item-summation) for dynamic data mining process that is able to take into considerations all updates (insert, update, and delete problems) into account.














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