Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 13, Issue 2 (November, 2012)

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1. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF VARIANCE RESULTS FOR THE SECOND AND THIRD REDUCED FACTORIAL SAMPLE MOMENTS IN NEUTRON MULTIPLICITY COUNTING
by Tom Burr & Mark Smith-Nelson
Abstract

Neutron multiplicity counting is an established method to estimate the spontaneous fission rate in an item. The probability distribution describing the number of neutrons detected in a short time window is typically summarized by its first few moments. For the random error contribution to assay uncertainty, it is useful to evaluate the variances of the second and third reduced factorial sample moments of the probability distribution, because these moments can be related to the spontaneous fission rate. Therefore, a previous paper derived exact expressions for the variances and covariances of the second and third reduced sample moments for nonoverlapping (and overlapping) counting gates, and compared them to the corresponding variances in simulated data. This paper analyzes real data to show that a bootstrap method and the analytical variance expressions give the same results


2. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL FOURTH-HARMONIC-GENERATION CRYSTAL LENGTH FOR WAVELENGTH CONVERSION INTO ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT

by Takafumi Ohfuchi, Toshio Takiya, Norihiro Inoue, Koh-ichirow Nakayama, Naoaki Fukuda & Hiroshi Kumagai

Abstract

The high intensity afforded by ultraviolet light is advantageous for laser-assisted scribing of advanced materials, including light-absorbing layers and electrode materials in solar cells. However, the wavelength conversion efficiency decreases in a nonlinear optical crystal at ultraviolet wavelengths due to the crystal’s increased absorption of light at these wavelengths. We have devised a method to analyze wave equation by coupling them with a heat conduction equation in order to clarify the relationship between reduction in conversion efficiency due to phase mismatching and the temperature distribution inside the crystal. Fourth-harmonic-generation laser light was passed through a β-barium borate crystal to confirm the validity of the analysis method. This method allows a quantitative assessment of the effect of the relationship between light intensity and crystal length on wavelength conversion, and can be used to select the optimum crystal length.


3. IDENTIFICATION OF POSSIBLE DIFFERENCES IN CODING AND NON CODING FRAGMENTS OF DNA SEQUENCES BY USING THE METHOD OF THE RECURRENCE QUANTIFICATION ANALYSIS
by Elio Conte, Sergio Conte & Alessandro Giuliani
Abstract

Starting with the results of Li et al. in 1992 there is valuable interest in finding long range correlations in DNA sequences since it raises questions about the role of introns and intron-containing genes. In the present paper we studied two sequences that are the human T-cell receptor alpha/delta locus, Gen-Bank name HUMTCRADCV, a noncoding chromosomal fragment of M = 97630 bases (composed of less than 10% of coding regions), and the Escherichia Coli K12, Gen-Bank name ECO110K, a genomic fragment with M = 111401 bases consisting of mostly coding regions and containing more that 80% of coding regions. We attributed the value (+1) to the purines and the value (-1) to the pirimidines and to such reconstructed random walk we applied the method of the Recurrence Quantification Analysis(RQA) that was introduced by Zbilut and Webber in 1994. By using dimension D=1 and Embedded Dimensions D=3 and D=5, we obtain some indicative results. Also by a simple eye examination of the reconstructed maps, the differences between coding and non coding regions are evident and impressive and consist in the presence in noncoding regions of long patches of the same colour that are absent in the coding sequence. At first sight this suggests a simple explanation to the concept of ‘long-range’ correlation. On the quantitative plane, we used the %Rec., the %Det., the Ratio, the Entropy, the %Lam., and the Lmax that, as explained in detail in the text, represent the basic variables of RQA. The significant result that we have here is that both Lmax and Laminarity exhibit very large values in HUMTCRADCV and actually different in values respect to ECO110K where such variables assume more modest values. Therefore we suggest that there is the observed difference between HUMTCRADCV and ECO110K. The claimed higher long-range correlations of introns respect to exons from many authors may be explained here in reasonof such found higher values of Lmax and of Laminarity in HUMTCRADCV respect to ECO110K.


4. COMPUTATION OF MAGNETIC FORCES IN MOVING COIL DRIVERS USING MEAN AND DIFFERENCE POTENTIALS
by Antônio Flavio Licarião Nogueira
Abstract

The purpose of the work is to investigate the performance of the mean and difference potentials method for the calculation of magnetic forces using a test problem that is axisymmetric and unbounded. The force-displacement characteristic of a conventional loudspeaker’s moving coil is firstly obtained by the mean and difference potentials technique, and this characteristic is compared to those produced by the methods of weighted Maxwell stress tensor and Lorentz force. The alternative approach to the calculation of forces and torques combines the principles of virtual work and superposition, and can be applied to any sequence of magnetically linear boundary-value problems which differ only in the placement of their excitations. The method avoids numerical differentiation entirely, and the numerical integrations are performed in the regions containing the field sources, wherein the field distributions are usually homogeneous and less prone to numerical error. The nonlinearity and asymmetry of the force-displacement characteristic obtained by the mean and difference potentials approach are in accordance with the physical understanding of the device, and the force values are computationally equivalent to those produced by the benchmark force methods.


5. CRACK PROPAGATION IN BRITLE MATERIALS: RELEVANCE TO MINERALS COMMINUTION
by Desmond Tromans
Abstract

A simple bond breaking model is developed to estimate the limiting Mode I crack speed, climit in polycrystalline materials of different chemistry, including oxides, sulphides and halides. It utilizes previously developed ionic and covalent model equations to determine the non-linear extension of a stretched bond pair at the crack tip and calculates the shortest time taken to break the bond, after which the crack tip advances to the next atom pair. It is shown that climit is always less than both the transverse acoustic wave speed cT and the Rayleigh surface wave velocity cR. Increasing the strain rate at the tip of a limiting crack requires additional means to release the locally increasing strain energy. This may be achieved by crack branching (bifurcation), leading to fragmentation... The effect of loading rate upon the branching and fragmentation process is examined and shown to be relevant to the energy efficiency of mineral comminution.


6. DETERMINATION OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF A CERAMIC GLASS COMPOSITE BY FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
by Jader dos Santos Miranda, André Luís Christoforo & Avelino Manuel da Silva Dias
Abstract

The constant advances in the industry originate from the need to develop solutions for a variety of applications. Mechanical Engineering has introduced innovations with regard to the science of materials subjected to various efforts. Recent studies demonstrate the potential of some classes of materials, special emphasis on ceramics. In this paper we are going to study primarily the ceramic glass sub-class through analysis of Zerodur®. Zerodur® is trade name given to an inorganic material with low thermal expansion, widely used in equipment subjected to large temperature variations, where is necessary to maintain good shape and geometry precision. It has high surface hardness and hence fragility when subjected to tensile. In order to enhance the mechanical characteristics of Zerodur® is proposed to merge the same with other materials (composite). With the aid of finite element method makes it possible to analyze the global behaviour of the composite when subjected to external stresses. In this paper we used the commercial finite element solver MARC™ on numerical analysis of computational structures Zerodur® - Steel. The main objective of this work is to simulate the behaviour of the composite test by three point bending. Subsequently, we intend to analyze the mechanical stiffness and implement models with crack strain.


7. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STRAINED DOUBLE GATE MOSFET
by Hossein Valinajad, Reza Hosseini & Mohhamad Esmael Akbari
Abstract

 In this paper electrical characteristics of Strained Double Gate Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor(DG MOSFET) and that of Conventional Double Gate MOSFET were investigated. A quantum mechanical transport approach based on non-equilibirium Green’s function(NEGF) method in the frame work of effective mass theory is employed in this analysis. We evaluate the variation of the threshold voltage, the subthreshold slope, ON state current  when channel length decreases. It is shown that the strained DG MOSFET gives high performance transistor value of  the scaled transcoductance and ON current that are greater than conventional DG MOSFET. Furthermore, comparison of unity current gain frequency fT of the devices ,which represents key metric for device applications, shows that the performance of strained DG MOSFET is better than the conventional DG MOSFET.


8. TRANSVERSAL SURFACES OF TIMELIKE RULED SURFACES IN MINKOWSKI 3-SPACE
by Mehmet Önder
Abstract

In this study, we give definitions and characterizations of transversal surfaces of timelike ruled surfaces. We study some special cases such as the striction curve is a geodesic, an asymptotic line or a line of curvature. Moreover, we obtain the developable conditions for transversal surfaces of a timelike ruled surface.


9. MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES WHICH PRODUCES DRUGS
by Leticia Milena Arcusin & Germán Horacio Rossetti
Abstract

Management of the Product Development Process (PDP) involves performing a set of activities, in which should intervene the majority of functional areas of the organization. Each of them is carried out taking into account the product to develop, business strategy and the philosophical conception of the company.

The PDP management is performed by reference models involving tools, concepts and practices. Its structure is advantageous for all companies, as it improves the understanding of customer needs in the early stages of development, reduces duplication of work in the stages of development and helps control the cost, quality and schedule project. However, this task is not easy for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), mainly due to: (i) lack of knowledge about the product engineering practices, (ii) the lack of skilled and knowledge and / or appropriate management techniques for planning, monitoring and control of projects, (iii) organizational difficulties of each company that operates in unstable environments, with social and cultural difficulties and (iv) other external features that harm the internal performance of the companies.

In this paper a System for Management of the Product Development Process for Small and Medium Enterprises Producing Drugs is developed, taking into account the reference model of Rozenfeld [1] and the characteristic parameters of the companies. The proposed management system is developed in order to improve procedures in the development of products, taking into account the culture of business, so as to adjust, adapt and be accepted by the community productive. Furthermore, the system is developed in terms of competitive environment, strategies and capabilities of enterprises, presenting concepts, tools and information flow applied in the various activities for understanding and translating customer requirements, improving product specifications of its production process and monitoring.

10. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND SALT LAKE MUNICIPALITY- A GIS AND MIS APPROACH
by S.K. Maity, B.K. Bhattacharyay & B. Bhattacharyya
Abstract

Bidhannagar or Salt Lake City as is a planned satellite township in West Bengal. It was developed between 1958 and 1965 to accommodate large number of population of Kolkata. It is now one of the important hubs for Information Technology in the Kolkata. The Chief Minister of West Bengal, Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy, was main architect in formulating the plan to build this satellite area, and later the township was named Bidhannagar in his honor. The city was built on a reclaimed salt-water lake, which gave rise to its popular name of "Salt Lake City". The development of the area was done in "Sectors". The plots were classified as residential, residential (shop-allowable), commercial, institutional and industrial. By 1965, Sector-I was complete and by 1969, Sector-II and Sector-III were built for occupancy. After that the industrial Sectors IV and V (the location of the IT industries) were developed. The Sector IV contains Nicco Park — the first amusement park of eastern India with 40 acres (160,000 m2) of land and the Nalban Boating Complex and so also the under-privileged area of Sukantanagar. The 12.35 km² area of the town initially composed of 12873 plots of land apart from 87 housing estates and blocks, got built up. Recently, the land area of this township has almost doubled to 33.5 km² due to the incorporation of Duttabad, Sukantanagar, Nayapatti, Dhapa-Manpur and Mahishbathan areas. The whole of Duttabad remains as an underdeveloped area till date [1,2].

For effective urban and environmental management, solid waste management plays an important role [2,3]. Current population of Kolkata city is 5,080,519 and initially Salt Lake was planned to accommodate nearly 4, 50,000 population. In India, municipal solid waste management, like most of other infrastructural services has come under great stress, consider low priority areas, solid waste management was never taken up seriously either by public or by concerned agency or authorities and now the large amount of waste is threatening our heath, environment and well being (Chouhan and Reddy 1996, Mazumdar 1994) [4,5,6 & 7]. Salt Lake Municipal Corporation is responsible for better management of solid waste that are produced everyday and the present study has been carried out in the urban environment of Salt Lake in the year 2011 to understand the problems and perspective associated with solid waste management in the city.

To provide a waste management service which can be acceptable on existing financial constrains. This action plan proposed two elements of the plan firstly the creation of an efficient Management Information System (MIS) & Geographical Information System (GIS) and secondly the provision of planning and management such that there are possibilities of improvement in financial and institutional support. Due to the financial constrains it was suggested to incorporate those options which can promote the improvement in the system without a major capital investment. So it is proposed to create the MIS and GIS information.


11. FLUORESCENT CDSE NANOPARTICLES IN ELECTROSPUN POLYETHYLENE OXIDE (PEO) NANOFIBRES: PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION
by Thandekile. P. Mthethwaa, M.J. Moloto & A. De Vries
Abstract

Polyethyleneoxide/CdSe composites nanofibres were fabricated using electrospinning technique. The composites were prepared by dissolving 2, 5 and 6 % (with respect to PEO) CdSe in PEO polymer solution with the concentration of 3 wt %. The effect of CdSe loading on the fibre diameters, morphology, optical and thermal properties was evaluated using SEM, UV-Visible, photoluminescence, TGA. The diameters of the fibres were found to increase with CdSe loading while their morphology also changes. The UV-visible and photoluminescence showed the absorption and the emission properties of characteristic CdSe nanoparticles with a stable emission at all CdSe loadings. The XRD showed a decrease in crystallinity of the polymer upon addition of CdSe nanoparticles. The stability of the composite fibres was evaluated with TGA which showed that the concentration had no significant effect of the stability of the polymer.


12. MATHEMATICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE OBTAINING OF THE MINIMAL AREA, OF A DETECTABLE UNHOMOGENEITY FOR THE EQUIPMENT OF MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITANCES, FOR A TWO-PHASE FLOW TO ANNUL IN A DUCT
by Silvia Reyes Mora, Andrés Fraguela Collar & Emmanuel Abdias Romano Castillo
Abstract

A mathematical model for the Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) is proposed, of a two-phase flow regimes, dielectric annular in pipelines. An expression is obtained for the mutual capacitances, by means of the solution of a direct problem, which is in terms of the radiuses of regions, the error that the equipment commits on having measured and the permittivity of every phase of the fluid. The expressions of the mutual capacitance are used for to minimize a functional, to find the minimal area of a detectable unhomogeneity for the equipment of measurement, in the center of the duct. This result is very important since, will be used to raise a method of adapted discretization, to solve an inverse problem of the ECT. In addition the formula of the mutual capacitances, it will serve to calibrate the equipments of measurement nowadays existing; and the solution of the direct problem, it will serve to validate any  method for solution of the inverse problem.   


13. EVALUATION OF VARYING ACQUISITION PARAMETERS ON THE IMAGE CONTRAST IN SPECT STUDIES
by Ibrahim E. Saad, Nadia L. Helal, Hazem Mohie El-Din & Rizk A.Moneam
Abstract

Many physical factors degrade SPECT images both qualitatively and quantitatively. SPECT has highlighted the need to improve gamma camera performance. The study will examine different acquisition parameters for the gamma camera such as matrix size and motion type. Also it will cover the processing parameters like filtered back projection and iterative reconstruction techniques.

 

Image contrast refers to the differences in density (or intensity) in parts of the image corresponding to different levels of radioactive uptake in the patient. In nuclear medicine, it is the lesion-to-background uptake or concentration ratio. Various physical factors limit the quality of the SPECT images. Among these are matrix size and motion type. A general definition of contrast is that it is the ratio of signal change of an object of interest, such as a lesion, relative to the signal level in surrounding parts of the image.

14. EMPIRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ECONOMIC MINERAL (KAOLIN) DEPOSITS FROM VERTICAL ELECTRICAL SOUNDING INVESTIGATIONS IN UBULU-UKU, DELTA STATE NIGERIA
by Emmanuel Chukwuemeka Okolie
Abstract

Ubulu-Uku is specifically characterized with heavy lateritic deposits to far depth. However, with its sloppy terrain which tends to terminate at springs and streams there are evidences of thick clay deposits at near surface in the slopes. The properties of this clay deposits seem to change rapidly and drastically into kaolinite. Kaolin is a solid mineral of traditional, medicinal and economic importance since numerous industries now use kaolin as raw material. It is therefore necessary to carry out empirical investigation in Ubulu-Uku, Delta State so as to determine Kaolin occurrence. Thus, five vertical electrical soundings with Schlumberger array were made across the town in selected sites using ABEM SAS 1000 terrameter. The obtained field data were analyzed by computer iteration from which the subsurface structures were obtained. The results show that the formations in Ubulu-Uku are of A, HA, KH and AH - curve types. They also show that Ubulu Uku contains large quantity of kaolin with high concentration within Aniomah in Isho and around the valleys at depths of about 20 m to 70 m. In some parts it outcrops with high regenerative capacity as in Aniomah Isho.


15. THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY, THERMAL EFFUSIVITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT OF SOILS IN OLORUNSOGO POWERPLANT, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA
by Michael Adeyinka Oladunjoye & Oluseun Adetola Sanuade
Abstract

The determination of soil thermal properties, such as thermal resistivity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity and specific heat, is of great importance for various civil and electrical engineering projects where heat transfer takes place through the soil mass. Some of these projects include design and laying of high-voltage buried power cables, oil and gas pipe lines, nuclear waste disposal facilities. Many workers have focussed their attention on determining only the thermal resistivity of materials for making recommendations when executing various engineering projects.  However, it is important to evaluate thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity and specific heat, not thermal resistivity alone when dealing with protecting any buried pipe from freezing. This research work therefore intends to determine these properties in soils of Olorunsogo Gas Turbine Power Station (335 MW Phase 1) which is located in Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.

Ten pits, each of about 1.5 m below the ground surface, were established in and around the power plant in order to measure thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of soil in-situ.  A KD 2 thermal analyzer was used for the in-situ measurement of thermal properties.  Samples were also collected from the ten pits for laboratory determination of the physical parameters that influence thermal properties.  The samples were subjected to grain size distribution analysis, compaction, specific gravity, porosity and permeability tests, and moisture content determination.  The thermal conductivity, density and specific heat were used to calculate the thermal effusivity of the soil

The results show that thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity and specific heat range from 0.346 – 0.752 mm2/s, 1.38 – 4.01 Jm-2K-1S-1/2 and 1.152 – 3.361 mJ/m3K respectively.  Also, the physical parameters such as moisture content, porosity, degree of saturation, dry density and permeability vary from 13.00 – 16.20 %, 39.74 – 45.64 %, 40.72 – 63.52 %, 1725.05 – 1930.00 Kg/m3 and 0.0144 – 0.0316 cm/s respectively. The temperature ranges from 28.92 – 35.39 oC with an average of 32.11 oC in the study area.

It was found that the thermal properties of soils in the area are good enough for proper laying of cables or pipelines.  Also the variation of thermal properties with physical parameters match with the results reported in literatures except for the variation of porosity with specific heat.  Therefore, for safe and proper execution of various civil and electrical engineering projects, determination of thermal properties of soils is quite essential.


16. URBAN LANDUSE SUITABILITY ASSESSMENT USING GEOINFORMATION TECHNIQUES FOR KISUMU MUNICIPALITY IN KENYA
by Khaemba W. Alexander, Mwasi Benjamin & Opata. P. Grephas
Abstract

The present land use situation in Kisumu municipality portrays a state of mixed and conflicting land uses. This has been attributed to improper land use allocation strategies, lack of appropriate spatial decision support systems coupled with ever competing land use needs.This study aimed at assessing the suitability of urban land use allocation in the municipality through generation of GIS-based land use suitability maps that will enhance land use allocation in the municipality. The process considers multiple land use objectives, determines the amount of land required by each together with their environmental requirements. This was in view of the fact that the practice of urban land use allocation has all along been begged on economic factors devoid of environmental concerns which play a vital role for sustainable urban development. Both spatial and non-spatial data was analysed systematically through criteria formulation, multi-criteria evaluation and multi-objective land allocation processes to generate the land use allocation model from which land use suitability maps were derived. The decision-making tools incorporated within the spatial decision support system (SDSS) modules of ArcGIS and IDRISI for Windows were used.


17. VARIATION IN THE OPTICAL SENSING PROPERTIES OF DITHIOCARBAMATE POLYMER MICROSPHERES AS FUNCTION OF SURFACE MORPHOLOGY
by Imad Odeh, Ziad Shakhsher, Mousa Amayreh, Mahmoud Khatib & Abeer Karmi
Abstract

Three polymers with N-ethanolamino-, N-benzylamino-, and N-t-butylamino-dithiocarbamate groups were synthesized from polyvinylbenzylchloride. Each of the three polymers was incorporated in a hydrogel membrane (PVA) cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to form a sensing element. The latter was, then, evaluated for its optical sensing behavior by subjecting it to varying concentrations (1.0x10-5 up to 0.1 M) of metal ions (Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Hg2+,Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Cr3+, Ni2+, Cu2+). Significant response was observed for the Hg2+ ions while the others showed negligible or no response. The turbidity absorbance increased consecutively from the dithiocarbamate polymer derived from N-t-butylamine towards that from ethanolamine as the concentration of the Hg2+ solution increased. The response time measured for the three polymer microspheres ranged between 2 and 30 minutes. The aminodithiocarbamate polymers were stable at normal temperatures (25ο - 40 ο C) and as pH was changed between 2 and 7. In addition, the polymers demonstrated excellent stability with time and a capacity of 3.967, 3.787, 3.355 mmol Hg2+  ions per gram of polymer for the N-ethanolamino-, N-benzylamino-, and N-t-butylamino-dithiocarbamate  respectively. SEM and Eds analyses showed an increase in size of about 25% in the case of complexation with N-ethanolamino-, no size change with N-benzylamino-, and a 16.6% decrease in size with N-t-butylamino-dithiocarbamate.


18. METABOLISM IS UNIVERSAL
by John H. Jennings
Abstract

A mathematical theory attempted to predict the daily maintenance calorie intake (C) for a single male individual.  It is a linear function of the weight, based on data gathered during two periods of strict water fasts with different fasting rates.  These are somewhat unusual sets of data.  FA, the activity factor, is a measure of the amount of physical activity related to the lowest state of body metabolism, RMR.  The height and weight of a normal adult male over 16 can be converted to the lean body mass (LBM), the sole predictor of RMR.  So, an expression for the resting metabolism rate (RMR) can be derived and extended to Reference Man, and Levanzin, a man who underwent a famous prolonged fast, and the resulting linear formula agrees well with the Harris-Benedict equation for the basal metabolism rate for men.  This proves that the RMR for normal adult men was given by extending the theory for the daily calorie intake for one man, so metabolism is universal.   It was unknown what the calorie intake was on the non-fasting days, so in the theory it was assumed to be the maintenance calorie intake for the weight on that day.  C ≡ (RMR)(FA) and for men 1.3 < FA < 1.9.  The activity factor for U.S Reference Man is 1.6.


19. EXERGY ANALYSIS OF A GAS TURBINE PERFORMANCE WITH EFFECT CYCLE TEMPERATURES
by Wadhah Hussein Abdul Razzaq Al- Doori
Abstract To examine the degradation of energy during a practice, the production of entropy and the loss of work opportunities, exergy is analyzed. This analysis provides an alternative plan to ensure superior performance of a power plant. This study performed an exergetic analysis for a Baiji plant with a gas-turbine of capacity 159-MW. Each component of the system was tested in accordance with the laws of mass and energy conversion. The aspects under consideration were the quantitative exergy balance for the entire system and for each component, respectively. At different temperatures, rate of irreversibility of system components, efficiency of exergy and the efficiency flaws were highlighted for each component and for the whole plant. The exergy flow of a material is classified into the groupings of thermal, mechanical and chemical exergy in this study and a stream of entropy-production. Fuel oil of low heating value of 42.9 MJ/kg was used as the fuel. The evaluation addressed the question of how the fluctuations in cycle temperatures influence the exergetic efficiency and exergy destruction in the plant. The rate of exergy destruction in the turbine was around 5.4% whereas that in the combustion chamber was about 36.4%. When a 14°C rise was done in the temperature, exergy efficiency for the combustion chamber and the turbine was calculated to be 45.43% and 68.4%, respectively. According to the results of the study, the combustion chamber and turbine are found to be chief means of irreversibilities in the plant. Also, it was identified that the exergetic efficiency and the exergy destruction are considerably dependent on the alterations in the turbine inlet temperature. On the basis of these results, recommendations are presented for advancement of the plant.

20. STUDY OF THE PRINCIPLES OF RADIATION PROTECTION IN DENTISTRY CENTERS
by Mohammad Javad Keikhai Farzaneh, Mohsen Mesgarani, Shahla Shafiee & Baharan Namayeshi
Abstract

Introduction: the risk of death rate resulted from imaging with X-rays has been assessed as 2.5 vases of all one million radiographies so that 170 cases of death rate are annually occurred owing to using X-rays to perform a thorough intra-oral radiography. This study aims to determine observing the protection principles against radiation in dentistry centers.

Materials and Methods: in this descriptive study, the information of patients and observing the personnel’s radiation protection achieved through observation and filling out the questionnaire, in the next stage the relative and absolute frequency of each indicator were analyzed through SPSS software.

Findings: An undesirable condition can be seen in most dentistry center due to existing the equipment of radiation protection such thyroid protection and compressed lead walls in these centers such that 100% of dentistry radiography rooms had lead partitions, 31% of radiography rooms had thyroid protection and 26% were deprived of lead immunized walls.

Conclusion: The radiation protection principles in observing dentistry centers had a desirable condition but this condition was not the same as those in quality control program.


21. ON THE LOCAL PROPERTY OF SUMMABILITY OF A FACTORED FOURIER SERIES
by B.P.Padhy, N.K.Panda, U.K. Misra & Mahendra Misra
Abstract

In this paper we have established a theorem on the local property of summability of  a factored Fourier series.  


22. ASYMPTOTICS OF THE GENERALIZED STATISTICS FOR TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS UNDER RANDOM CENSORING
by A.A. Abdushukurov & N.S.Nurmuhamedova
Abstract

In this article in a model of random censorship from both sides, we consider  research two statistics for testing the composite hypotheses, which have in limit a chi-square distribution with appropriate degrees of freedom. First one is the generalized chi-square statistics, for the construction of which we use the power estimate distributions of function(d.f.). The second statistics is twice the logarithm of the likelihood ratio statistics (LRS) of model of random censorship from both sides. Both of these statistics can be used to construct an asymptotic tests of chi-square type for the composite hypotheses.


23. COPPER CORROSION BEHAVIOR IN PHOSPHORIC ACID CONTAINING CHLORIDE AND ITS INHIBITION BY ARTEMISIA OIL
by F. Mounir, S. El Issami, Lh. Bazzi, R. Salghi, L. Bammou, L. Bazzi, A. Chihab Eddine & O. Jbara
Abstract

Corrosion behaviour of copper in phosphoric acid containing sodium chloride at different concentrations was studied in the first part of this paper to illustrate the aggressively of chloride toward copper corrosion in this medium. The second part treated copper corrosion inhibition effect of Artemisia oil (AO) extracted from Artemisia herbaalba. Tree experimental techniques have been used such as weight-loss, electrochemical polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). .

The result obtained shows that corrosion rate of copper in phosphoric acid increase with increasing chloride concentration from 10-3 to 3.10-1 M. The inhibitory effect of Artemisia oil (AO) was then studied in more aggressive medium (2 M H3PO4 + 3.10-1 M NaCl) at different temperatures. The results obtained show that AO is a good inhibitor. The naturally oil reduces effectively the corrosion rate of copper. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with oil content to attain 89% at 6 g/l. AO acts as a mixed inhibitor. The effect of temperature on copper corrosion  indicates that inhibition efficiency of the natural substance decreases with the rise of temperature. Inhibition efficiency values obtained from weight loss, polarization curves and EIS are in reasonably good agreement.


24. A DECISION-ANALYTIC MODEL FOR ASSESSING THE INSTALLATION OF SMALL HYDROPOWER SYSTEMS IN POLLUTED STREAMS
by Mario Luis Chew Hernández, Edgar Enrique Pérez Pantoja & Bianca Carolina García Reyes
Abstract

Usually, hydroelectric projects are developed only for rivers of high flow-rate; however, micro generation of electricity, in which small turbines are installed in rivers of low flow-rate, which may also be polluted, presents itself as a way of supplying electricity to communities far away from the main power generation plants. Installing turbines in polluted streams is an appealing alternative, as these streams do not have any other use or ecological value.  This work presents the development, with an application to a hypothetical case study, of a decision model that assesses the feasibility of installing turbines in polluted streams. Using a Decision Analysis-Value Focused Thinking approach, the model includes the uncertainties inherent to the problem and relevant non-economical objectives, like those of social and environmental nature.


25. MICROSCOPIC OPTICAL POTENTIAL FOR P-12C ELASTIC SCATTERING AT INTERMEDIATE ENERGIES
by M.A. Allam
Abstract

Analytical formula is constructed for nucleon nucleus microscopic optical potential based on the Glauber-Sitenko microscopic theory of multiple scattering at high energies. In the present work the elastic scattering of proton on 12C is studied and analyzed at proton incident energies 120 MeV, 160 MeV and 200 MeV. The microscopic Eikonal phase of scattering in the optical limit has been used with the usual energy dependent NN scattering amplitude. The microscopic form of the real, imaginary and spin orbit of the obtained optical potential gives a good description of the experimental data of the considered reaction. The theoretical calculations of the differential cross sections as well as analyzing power are in good agreement with the experimental data. In order to get confidence and generalization, the same model should be applied to greater range of energies and other types of target nuclei.


26. AN INNOVATIVE DESIGN METHODOLOGY OF PAVEMENT DESIGN BY LIMITING SURFACE DEFLECTION
by Mehmet Cetin, Robert M. Brooks & PhilipUdo-Inyang
Abstract

An iterative procedure is followed to predict the pavement deflections at the surface under the wheel load. Using a computer program, “KENPAVE”stresses, strains, and deflections are determined at all the important points in the pavement system. A strategy is designed to assign the stiffness values to various layers of the pavement system such that there exist negligible tensile stresses in the subgrade and base layers. The layer thicknesses are designed targeting the surface deflection within the acceptable limit. Several pavement sections are designed covering various environmental and traffic variables.

The minimum surface course thickness of 2 inches corresponded to lowest surface course stiffness which is 100, 000 psi. The highest surface course thickness of 20 inches corresponded to 500,000 psi of surface course stiffness. The average surface course thickness was 11 inches. The average surface course stiffness was 296,600 Psi.


27. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE RESULTS OF AN INNOVATIVE DESIGN METHODOLOGY BY LIMITING SURFACE DEFLECTION AND AASHTO DESIGN METHOD
by Mehmet Cetin, Robert M. Brooks & PhilipUdo-Inyang
Abstract

In this paper an innovative design procedure was used for designing several pavement sections covering various layer thicknesses, material and environmental variables. The designed sections are compared with the AASHTO procedure and the differences are discussed.


28. SORPTION MODEL FOR THE REMOVAL OF M-ANISIDINE DYE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING BEAKER’S YEAST (SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE)
by A.K. Asiagwu
Abstract

  

Sorption Model for the removal of M – Anisidine dye from aqueous solution, using baker’s yeast has been investigated. The effect of contact time, pH, temperature, adsorbent dosage and dye concentration on the removal of M – Anisidine (dye) from aqueous solution, using baker’s yeast was undertaken so as to determine the optimum condition for the sorption process. The results generated were fitted into the adsorption isotherms (Freundlich and Longmuir Models) and further into adsorption kinetics of the Pseudo – First Order and Pseudo – Second Order so as to predict adsorption rate and mechanism. The thermodynamic properties of the sorption process were also examined. The result shows that increase in contact time increased adsorption rate. 88.8% of dye was removed at 100 minutes of contact time. 300C was the optimum temperature for the sorption process. Adsorbent dosage decreased adsorption. 2g adsorbent dosage recorded optimum dye removal of 86%. Increase in dye ion concentration increased adsorption tendency. 50mg/L, produced optimum recondition of 82%. SF value of 0.629mg/g was obtained. KF as 0.041. R2 was obtained as 0.999, which produced linear plot, indicating that pseudo – second order favourably described the adsorption process. ∆G, ∆S and ∆H, obtained shows that the process is not a spontaneous one.


29. SORPTION KINETICS OF Pb (II) AND Cd (II) IONS VIA BIOMASS SURFACE OF PLANTAIN PEEL WASTE
by A.K. Asiagwu
Abstract

The sorption of two divalent metals [Pb (II) and Cd (ii)] onto plantain peal waste via kinetic approach has been investigated. The sorption capacity of Cd (II) increases from 0.061 – 0.189mg/L while Pb (II) increases from 0.071 – 0.281mg/L, increase in the mass of biomass from 1g – 3g decre3ased the adsorption of the metal ions. This may be as a result that high masses of adsorbent donet allow effective contact between the adsorbent and the metal ions. The rate of adsorption increased with decrease in particle size. Pb II and Cd II removal from this study was very rapid within 5 – 20 minutes to over 50 – 70% of each metal ion. While examining the bio – sorption efficiency, Langmuir and Freundlich models were used. From the Langmuir isotherms, qm which is the measure of maximum adsorption capacity were obtained as 0.050 and 0.198 for Pb II and Cd II, respectively. The adsorption coefficient Kl were obtained as 0.058 and 0.126 for Pb II and Cd II respectively. The separation parameter TE was less than unity for both metals indicating favourable isotherm. The freundlinch isotherm estimated the adsorption intensity of the sorbate on the sorbent surface. The adsorption intensity 11, was obtained as 1.3 and 2.0 for Pb II and Cd II respectively. The Kf value of Pb II was greater than Cd II suggesting that Pb II has greater adsorption intensity towards the biomass than Cd II. However, Pseudo – first order model was not adequate to describe the sorption process.


30. EVALUATING CLASSIFICATION EFFECTIVENESS OF SEQUENTIAL MINIMAL OPTIMIZATION (SMO) ALGORITHM ON CHEMICAL PARAMETIZATION OF GRANITOIDS
by Olalekan S. Akinola & Adetoun C. Afolabi
Abstract

Geologists have been facing the problem of identification and correct classification of rock types since time immemorial. In this study, we employed Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO) data mining algorithm on the classification of granitoids such as granites. Granitoid data were obtained from previous works of thesis, projects and journals. The data were then subjected to data mining activities using the SMO. Briefly, results obtained from the study shows that SMO algorithm is suitable and reliable for classifying granitoid rock types based on the chemical composition up to 97% accuracy.


31. MASS TRANSPORT IN ARTERIES AND THE LOCALIZATION OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN HUMAN
by Babagana Gutti, Alfred A. Susu & Olufemi A. Fasanmade
Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a disease of the large arteries that involves a characteristic accumulation of high-molecular weight lipoprotein in the arterial wall. This research focuses on the mass transport processes that mediate the focal accumulation of lipid in arteries and places particular emphasis on the role of fluid mechanical forces in modulating mass transport phenomena as well as analysis of the Damkholer numbers within the arterial surfaces. Blood phase controlled hypoxia was considered in the mass transport mechanisms that emerge in the localization of atherosclerosis. The results of the analysis of Damkholer numbers indicated that there were no significant difference between the model derived values of the Damkholer numbers and the corresponding simulated values.


32. ON THE BAND GAPS AND BAND OFFSETS OF TYPE I MULTIPLE QUANTUM WELL (MQW) SYSTEM
by Ajayi Jonathan Olanipekun, Adelabu, James Sunday Adebowale & Awodugba Ayodeji Oladiran
Abstract

This work aims at investigating the comparison between experiment via optical absorption (OA) and photoluminescence (PL) and theory via envelope function approximation model vis-à-vis the band gaps and band offsets of type I multiple quantum well (MQW) system.

Measurements of optical absorption (OA) and photoluminescence (PL) have been carried out on type I Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) system of GaAs-AlGaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). An attempt has been made to compare exciton peak obtained for both heavy hole and light hole at band offset of 70/30 at different temperatures (Theory and Experiment). It is revealed from our investigation that the confinement energies of the particles increase with increase in the height of the potential barrier for electron and decrease with increase in height of the potential barrier for light hole and heavy hole. The increase is more pronounced in the case of the light hole.

However, our findings revealed clearly that the confinement energies of the particles vary as the band offsets.


33. A STUDY OF 30O-60O-90O SCALENE TRIANGULAR PATCH ANTENNA (TPA)AT 900MHZ
by Ogherohwo E.P., Adeniran A. O. & Olabisi O.
Abstract

In this work, two Triangular Patch Antennas (TPA) were designed and analyzed at 900MHz using the existing cavity model. The miniaturization process was achieved by shorting pin method with plastic (substrate) material of dielectric constant 2.25 considered as the substrate. The Electric (E) and Magnetic (H)  fields radiation patterns characteristics of the TPAs designed were simulated at various thickness of the substrate (h=0.8mm,1.1mm,1.7mm and 2.0mm) with the aid of Microsoft Excel Softwarev.2007.The simulated results obtained show that the TPAs designed has broad beamwidth (>500) (omnidirectional radiation patterns). As the substrates thickness increases, the beamwidth of the radiation patterns increases for both E and H fields, in agreement with the TPA fundamental principles. Also, the results obtained are similar to that of the existing TPAs in the literatures, operating at the same frequency but different dimensions and dielectric materials. The gain (dB), VSWR, Return loss, Reflection Coefficient and Bandwidth was also calculated for the two TPAs considered in this study. The antennas can be employed in the telecommunication devices such as IPOD (pagers, IPAD), Mobile Phone Handsets, Laptops and other wireless devices.


34. ISOLATION AND ANTIFUNGAL EVALUATION OF JUGLANS REGIA L EXTRACTS
by Ahmad I. Husein, Mohammed A. Al-Nuri, Nidal A. Zatar, Waheed Jondi, Mohammed S. Ali-Shtayeh & Ismail Warad
Abstract

The potential of antifungal effects of Walnut (Juglans regia L., Juglandaceae) ethanolic and chloroform extracts was reported against four pathogenic fungi: three dermatophytes, Microsporum canis (MC), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (TM) and T. Rubrum (TR), and the causative agent of chalk brood disease of bees, Ascophaera apis (AsA). Both extracts had considerable activity against the studied fungi. The main antifungal component of walnut was isolated and tested for its antimycotic activity individually. Based on its IR, 13C and 1H NMR analysis the main significant activity against was indentifying to be 5-hydroxy- 1, 4-naphthoquinone (Juglone).














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