Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 13, Issue 1 (October, 2012)

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1. ADDRESSING SOME STRESS TENSOR TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE MAPLE SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT
by Jorge Alberto Rodríguez Durán, Cecilia Toledo Hernández & Jose Adilson de Castro
Abstract

After a brief theoretical explanation, some important problems of solid mechanics are addressed in the Maple software environment. Maple is a popular computer algebra system (CAS) developed as a research project at the University of Waterloo around 1980. This paper covers aspects such as the stress tensor transformations and their graphical interpretation (Mohr’s Circle), the eigenvalue problem of finding the principal values of the stress tensor in matrix form and others of interest for graduate and undergraduate engineering students. The aim of this paper is to present a quite small sample of the huge capabilities of the Maple software for solving mathematical and engineering problems and, in this way, encourage the students to use the software in their academic and professional tasks.


2. QUADRATIC HEDGING FOR CONTINGENT CLAIMS WITH DELTA CONSTRAINT

by Jianhua GUO & Huidian LONG

Abstract

In this paper, under constraint of delta-strategy and by importing another related risky asset to compose a hedging portfolio comprising the underlying asset and riskless asset(the Bond). Firstly, we excellently devise a dynamic hedging program for contingent claims; and then, according to Principle of Dynamic Programming and by taking advantage of backward recursion technique, at each rebalance moment before option’s maturity date, the optimal hedging strategies are acquired to (1) eliminate the diffusion risk by imposing delta constraint; and (2) depress the jump risk using the hedging portfolio, which minimize the mean squared error between the terminal valuation of hedging portfolio and the payment obligation that the option issuer may be charged with; lastly, at the end of this paper, empirical analysis and numerical results indicate that our proposed hedging strategy is not only efficacious and feasible but also convenient and simple to manipulate, at the same time, it is referential to hedging practice.


3. MODIFIED MARQUARDT ESTIMATOR
by Feras Sh. M. Batah
Abstract

Marquardt suggested a method for dealing with multicollinearity by developing Marquardt estimator (ME). In this paper, we propose a modification in Marquardt method to develop Modified Marquardt estimator (MME). This estimator generalizes the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), the Ordinary Ridge Regression (OOR), the Unbiased Ridge Regression (UUR), the Principal Components Regression (PCR), the  class , the Modified  (r,k) class ridge regression (MCRR) and the Marquardt estimator (ME). That is, for suitable choices of the principal component, r , ridge parameter, k , choice m and the prior information, J , all the above estimators are special cases of MME.    


4. BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF CHANGE POINT IN AUTOREGRESSIVE PROCESS
by Mayuri Pandya, Krishnam Bhatt & HardikPandya Chetan Thakar
Abstract

Let AR(1) model be Xi = β1 X i – 1 + ei , where ei are assumed to have Normal distribution with mean 0 and variance and  autocorrelation coefficient β1 but later it was found that there was a change in the system at some point of time m and it is reflected in the sequence after Xm by change in variance of error term, and autocorrelation coefficient β2. The problem of study is: When and where this change has started occurring.  This is called change point inference problem. The estimators of m, β1, and  β2   are derived under Asymmetric loss functions namely Linex loss & General Entropy loss functions. Both the non-informative and informative prior are considered. The effects of prior consideration on Bayes estimates of change point are also studied.


5. BAYESIAN INFERENCE ON MIXTURE OF GEOMETRIC WITH DEGENERATE DISTRIBUTION: ZERO INFLATED GEOMETRIC DISTRIBUTION
by Mayuri Pandya, Hardik Pandya & Smita Pandya
Abstract

Power series distributions form a useful subclass of one-parameter discrete exponential families suitable for modeling count data. A zero-inflated Geometric distribution is a mixture of a Geometric distribution and a degenerate distribution at zero, with a mixing probability p for the degenerate distribution. This distribution is useful for modeling count data that may have extra zeros. A sequence of independent count data X1,……. Xm, Xm+1,......, Xnwere observed from  A zero-inflated Geometric extra zeros. A sequence of independent  count data X1,......, Xm, Xm+1,......, Xn were observed from  A zero-inflated Geometric distribution with  probability mass function but later it was found that there was a change in the system at some point  m and it is reflected in the sequence after Xm by change in probability mass function  The Bayes estimators of m , θ1 , ,θ2 , are derived under different asymmetric loss functions. The effects of correct and wrong prior information on the Bayes estimates are studied.


6. FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF CuO/ZnO HETEROSTRUCTURES FOR PHOTOELECTRIC CONVERSION
by Hiroki Kidowaki, Takeo Oku & Tsuyoshi Akiyama
Abstract

Cuprous oxide (CuO)-based solar cells with zinc oxide (ZnO) were fabricated on indium tin oxide by an  electrodeposition. Microstructure and cell performance of the solar cells with ITO/CuO/ZnO or ITO/ZnO/CuO structures were investigated. Photovoltaic devices based on the CuO/ZnO or ZnO/CuO heterojunction structures provided photovoltaic properties under illumination. Structural, morphological and absorption measurement of the CuO/ZnO heterojunction were studied by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and light current-voltage characteristics. The energy levels of the present solar cells were also discussed.


7. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF LOW HEAT REJECTION DIESEL ENGINES WITH MOHR OIL BASED BIO-DIESEL
by T. Ratna Reddy, M.V.S. Murali Krishna, Ch. Kesava Reddy & P.V.K.Murthy
Abstract

Experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of a low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine consisting of different versions such as ceramic coated cylinder head engine-LHR-1; Air gap insulated piston and air gap insulated liner-LHR-2; and Ceramic coated cylinder head, air gap insulated piston and air gap insulated liner –LHR-3 with normal temperature condition of mohr oil based biodiesel (MOBD) with varied injection pressure. Performance parameters and emission levels were determined at various magnitudes of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Combustion characteristics of the engine were measured at the peak load operation with TDC (top dead centre) encoder, pressure transducer, console and special pressure-crank angle software package. Conventional engine (CE) showed compatible performance and LHR engines showed improved performance at recommended injection timing of 27obTDC and recommend injection pressure of 190 bar with MOBD operation, when compared with CE with pure diesel operation. Peak brake thermal efficiency increased relatively by 7%, brake specific energy consumption decreased relatively by 3.5%, smoke levels decreased relatively by 11% and NOx levels increased relatively by 58% with LHR-3 engine with MOBD at an injection pressure of 190 bar when compared with pure diesel operation on CE at an injection pressure of 190 bar.


8. APPLICATION OF NEWTON RAPHSON METHOD TO A FINITE BARRIER QUANTUM WELL (FBQW) SYSTEM
by AJAYI Jonathan Olanipekun, ALABI Akinniyi Michael & ADEDOKUN Oluwaseun
Abstract

Quantum wells are important in semiconductor lasers because they allow some degree of freedom in the design of the emitted wavelength through adjustment of the energy levels within the well by careful consideration of the well width. Many realistic model in Physics requires numerical methods since these models cannot always be solved analytically i.e. in closed form. In this paper, a simple model of the energy levels in a quantum well was considered, with the adoption of Newton Raphson method (due to its rapid convergence) to a special case in which one of the parameters of the transcendental equations of the finite barrier quantum well equals four. We have been careful enough with the choice of initial estimate, to obtain the results for the eigenstates of this system which compares favourably well (with only marginal error) with other results obtained using graphical approach.


9. EVALUATION OF BITUMEN PROPERTIES MODIFIED WITH ADDITIVE
by Suleiman Arafat Yero & Mohd. Rosli Hainin
Abstract

The study investigated the characteristics of bitumen 60/70 and 80/100 penetration grade modified with a commercial additive Sasobit wax, a long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon (LCAH). This additive is obtained from coal gasification using the Fischer-Tropsch process. Bitumen is thermo-visco-elastic material where temperature and rate of load application have a great influence on their performance. The neat binders lack the proper viscous-elastic balance required in asphalt mixture. Tn the study an additive Sasobit wax  with high molecular weight was used to enhance the bitumen performance. In this the fundamental rheological and mechanical tests were conducted, which include penetration test, softening point, viscosity test, the rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT), and pressure age vessel (PAV). The trend is with an increase in additive the binder viscosity decreases at high temperature as it stiffens and becomes hard at low temperature, thereby increasing the softening point and reducing the penetration of the binder.


10. DETERMINATION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS INDEX OF VARIOUS BITUMINOUS PAVEMENTS
by Suleiman Arafat Yero, Mohd. Rosli Hainin & Haryati Yacoob
Abstract

The roughness of the road surface constitutes the smoothness, and frictional properties of the pavement surface and in turn related to the safety, and the ease of the driving path. The roughness of a pavement is an important parameter in determining the comfort level of the riding path on a pavement, and this roughness of the pavement surface is related to the vehicle vibration, operating speed, wear and tear of the wheels. The surface roughness of a pavement is determined using the international roughness index (IRI), which is a measure of the texture of a pavement surface. This study investigated mainly three classes of bituminous pavement surfaces in Malaysia using the Australia road research board (ARRB) walking profilometer. The surfaces include asphalt concrete wearing (ACW), stone mastic asphalt (SMA), and surface dressed (SD) surfaces on jalan tebrau, jalan UTM-utama, jalan potian in Johor and jalan parit yaani in Batu Pahad. The study was conducted on the six selected roads and 60 test points where investigated. The results obtained from the study indicated that the surface dressed surfaces have the highest value of IRI, then the SMA surfaces and the least was the ACW surfaces indicating a smoother surface with more polished aggregates.

11. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN TEXTURE DEPTH, PENDULUM TEST VALUE AND ROUGHNESS INDEX OF VARIOUS ASPHALT SURFACES IN MALAYSIA
by Suleiman Arafat Yero, Mohd. Rosli Hainin & Haryati Yacoob
Abstract

This study is aim at determining the correlation between the pendulum test value (PTV), texture depth (TD), and roughness index (IRI) of various bituminous road surfaces. The study investigated 180 test points, and three different tests were conducted on the 6 selected test road surfaces.  The texture depth is a measure of the macrotexture of the pavement surface, while the microtexture, is referred to as the interstices of the aggregate that can resist polishing by traffic. The roughness of the road surface is a factor for determining the roughness index (IRI). The study was conducted on three different bituminous surfaces these includes, asphalt concrete wearing (ACW), stone mastic asphalt (SMA), and surface dressed(SD) surfaces on Jalan Tebrau, Jalan Pontian and Jalan Parit Yaani in Batu Pahad. From the results obtained from the study shows a weak correlation between the texture depth and the roughness index of the SD road surfaces. For the SMA and ACW surfaces there was weak or no correlation as the coefficient of variance (R2) is relatively less than unity. But the general trend shows that the higher the texture depth (TD), the higher the roughness index (IRI) and the pendulum test values (PTV).


12. ON THE FRACTIONAL-ORDER DISTRIBUTED OF A SELF-DEVELOPING MARKET ECONOMY VIA MULTI-STEP DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMATION METHOD
by Mehmet Merdan & Kurtulus Merdan
Abstract

In this paper, we research a fractional-order distributed of a self-developing market economy. Furthermore, we performed a detailed analysis on the stability of equilibrium.Multi-step differential transform method (MsDTM) extends to give approximate and analytical solutions of a fractional-order distributed of a self-developing market economy. Numerical simulations are present to verify the reliability and effectiveness results obtained from these methods.


13. WHY BIOFUELS
by Gligorijevic Radinko & Jevtic Jeremija
Abstract

It was clear that we are in global fimancial  meltdown, and it was proclaimed, in the past two decades, as well and in the current  and next one, the main guide in the development of automotive and engines tehmologies is, and will be, reducing of energy consumption, reducing pollutant emissions, especially NOx and PM emissions, and CO2  emissions and use alernative fuels.

Production of alternative fuels from diferent agricultural feedstock has rised enormous interest during the last decade.

Alternative fuels are an opportunity for people to leave oil before it leaves them, ie. to slow down the exploitation of mineral resources, for whose exploitation of the main problem is today`s drilling technology ie. ultradeep wells, and not the reduction in reserves as it is proclaimed.

Alternative fuels, particularly from lignoceluloze ie. second generation biofuels are a great opportunity for the world economy and a great opportunity for increased employment. It is estimated that every 1% share of biofuels in total consumption of fossil fuels to create 45, 000 to 75,000 new jobs, primarily in rural areas. This is a great opportunity for developing countries, whose economy is based on agriculture ie. they are, for many goverments, as a means to contribute to the diversication of energy supply and sustain agricultural incomes by creating new outlets for several agricultural products, notably cereals, vegetable oils and sugar plants. Biofuels  have a high potential for reducing emissions of pollutants, and they are biodegradable and do not pollute water and soil.

It is estimated that around 120 x1015 W of light energy that reaches the Earth from the Sun is only about 7.2 x 1015 W  ie. 6%  used for biomass production. Given that the total consumption of energy for human needs in the world is around 15 x1012  W, and, this means that the total production of bioenergy is five times then the total consumption. The main issue today, and in the future, is how to efficiently convert bioenergy from biomass into biofuel production.

From this aspect it is depicted why biofuels and the effect of bidiesel - blended diesel fuel on exhaust emission diesel engine.

14. QUIET- AND STORM-TIME CORRELATION OF F2-LAYER SLAB THICKNESS AND B0 AT AN EQUATORIAL STATION
by George Atilade Àlàgbé
Abstract

Ionosonde data, obtained at an equatorial station, for years of high solar activity [1990(Rz=143), 1991(Rz=146)] and a year of low solar activity [1995 (Rz =18)] were analyzed. The slab thickness of the F2 layer (TF2) was found to exhibit positive correlation with the IRI bottomside thickness parameter (B0), at high and low solar activity. This positive correlation was also observed between these ionospheric parameters during geomagnetic storms, at high and low solar activity.


15. EFFECT OF FUEL INJECTION PRESSURES ON THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF D. I. DIESEL ENGINE WITH BIODIESEL BLENDS COTTON SEED OIL METHYL ESTER
by C.V. Subba Reddy, C. Eswara Reddy & K. Hemachandra Reddy
Abstract

The world’s rapidly dwindling petroleum supplies, their rising cost and the rapid growing of automobile pollutions from fossil petroleum fuels have led to an intensive search for alternative fuels to replace diesel fuel. Agriculture and transport sectors consume maximum percentage of petroleum based fuels where diesel engine happens to be the prime mover.  Diesel fuelled vehicles discharge significant amount of pollutants such as CO, UHC, NOx, smoke, etc which are harmful to the environment. There is a wide variety of alternative fuels available as renewable fuels to replace diesel fuel. Vegetable oils, their properties being close to diesel fuel, may be a promising alternative for use in diesel engines.  The high viscosity and low volatility of these vegetable oils are the major problems for their use in diesel engines.  Such problem can be solved by the process of transesterification. In the present work, experiments are conducted on 3.72 kW(5 BHP) single cylinder, four stroke, water-cooled diesel engine using cotton seed oil methyl esters blended with diesel in various proportions to study the engine performance and emissions at different injection pressures. The effect of injection pressure on the performance and emission characteristics for various biodiesel blends of 0BD, 10BD, 20BD, 30BD and 100BD at six different test pressures of 170, 180, 190, 200, 210 and 220 bar are studied.

The experimental investigations reveal that the better performance and emission characteristics among the biodiesel blends are obtained at injection pressure of 200 bar with 20BD of cotton seed oil methyl ester.


16. EFFECT OF TANGENTIAL GROOVES ON PISTON CROWN OF D.I. DIESEL ENGINE WITH BLENDS OF COTTON SEED OIL METHYL EASTER
by C.V. Subba Reddy, C. Eswara Reddy & K. Hemachandra Reddy
Abstract

The world’s rapidly dwindling petroleum supplies, their rising cost and the rapid growing of automobile pollutions from fossil petroleum fuels have led to an intensive search for alternative fuels to replace diesel fuel. Direct injection diesel engines are in service  for both heavy duty vehicles, light duty vehicles not only in the fields of agriculture and transport sectors, but also stationary engines consume maximum percentage of petroleum based fuels and have the evident benefit of a higher thermal efficiency than all other engines. However, the direct injection diesel engine emits significant amount of pollutants such as CO, UHC, NOx, smoke etc, which are harmful to the environment. There is a wide variety of alternative fuels available as renewable fuels to replace diesel fuel. Vegetable oils, their properties being close to diesel fuel, may be a promising alternative for use in diesel engines.  The high viscosity and low volatility of these vegetable oils are the major problems for their use in diesel engines. Such problem can be solved by the process of transesterification. In the present work experiments are conducted on D.I. Diesel engine with three different tangential grooved pistons and cotton seed oil methyl esters blended with diesel in various proportions. The effect of three different sizes of tangential grooves on piston crown on the performance and emission characteristics are studied.  Brake specific energy consumption decreases and thermal efficiency of engine slightly increases when operating on blended fuel of 20% Cotton seed oil methyl ester (COME) and 80% diesel (20BD) than that operating on diesel fuel.

From the experimental investigations, it is found that 200 bar is the optimum injection pressure with 20BD blend of COME, which has resulted in better performance and emission characteristics among the biodiesel blends. Based on the results it is concluded that the base line engine with tangential grooved piston configuration(TGP-2) gives maximum performance in all aspects and reduces emissions.


17. CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE PREVALENCE OF SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBUIM AND WATER CONDITIONS: A Case Study among the School Pupils in Southwestern Nigeria
by Sowole Ayodele Risikat & Adegbite Afeez Ayoade
Abstract

The study was carried out to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and distribution of the infections among the school pupils of Ijoun, Yewa North Local Government Area Ogun State Southwestern Nigeria. Then, the water conditions of the community where the pupils reside and consequently to establish the degree of correlation between the prevalence and water conditions. A total 268 pupils randomly selected for the study, and then statistical technique of correlation analysis was used to establish the degree of relationship between the water usage and prevalence of the infection. Of these pupils examined 221 were positive for the Schistosoma haematobium ova. There is slight difference between the rate of infection among sex; 86.4 % female and 76.8% male. The Coefficient of Determination value of 0.773, between numbers of infected females and the number that take bath in the river/stream/pond indicating the high positive correlation between two variables, a value of 0.939 was obtained for the correlation between the number of infected females and the number that wash clothes in water bodies. The highest correlation (0.958) was between the number of infected and the number that participate in fishing/farming. There is need for health/ hygiene education in the rural areas, designed to discourage the pupils contact with surface water sources and provision of portable water supply.


18. ASSESSMENT OF OIL AND GREASE, TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS AND SOME HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER WITHIN THE VICINITY OF NNPC OIL DEPOT IN APATA, IBADAN METROPOLIS, NIGERIA
by G.O. Adewuyi & R A Olowu
Abstract

The present study discusses an assessment of oil, grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and some heavy metals in surface and ground water within and around the Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) depot, in Apata, Ibadan metropolis in other to assess the pollution status of the water. Samples were collected randomly within and around the depot. Control samples were taken from Awba dam and Obafemi Awolowo hall of residence, within the University of Ibadan. TPH, oil and grease were analyzed gravimetrically while the levels of heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS)  The results revealed the presence of oil and grease in both surface and ground water with a value ranging from 59.74±4.92 to 67.35±2.21, and 10.48+1.21 to 34.94+5.04 mg/l compared to control sample with a value of, 37.21±4.77 and 12.17±0.78 mg/l respectively. Conversely, high values of TPH were recorded for both surface and groundwater in the studied area ranging from, 20.34±1.79 to 27.40±5.32 and 2.67±0.80 to 13.03±2.21mg/l respectively as against the control of 13.18±2.41 and 1.58±0.22 mg/l. The level of heavy metals concentration recorded in both surface and groundwater samples of studied sites were ranged from  0.162±0.015 to 0.195±0.011mg/l Pb, 0.279±0.088 to 0.315±0.085mg/l Cd, 5.063±0.377 to 5.096±0.373mg/l Zn, 0.103±0.0207 to 0.133±0.036mg/l Ni, 8.744±0.112 to 10.307±0.387mg/l Cu and 0.052±0.006 to 0.059±0.013mg/l Cr for surface water respectively while groundwater contained as much as 0.046±0.016 to 0.156±0.023mg/l Pb, 0.016±0.004 to 0.045±0.003mg/l Cd, 1.560±0.061mg/l to 2.972±0.136mg/l Zn, 0.015±0.006 to 0.315±0.037mg/l Ni, 2.256±0.121 to 4.820±0.288mg/l Cu and 0.0033±0.013 to 0.073±0.009mg/l Cr. A statistically significant difference at p<0.05 was found to exist between the concentrations of oil and grease, TPH and the analyzed metals collected from the sites and the control sites. Based on this study, the human and environmental risk to TPH, oil and grease, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd and Zn in surface and ground water are high for now, as the concentrations were higher than those of the control sites and the recommended permissible limit of the World Health Organization (WHO), European and Union (EU). It is therefore recommended among others that primary treatment plant be install in all NNPC depot for the uptake of these toxicants which may pose treat to human health on bioaccumulation.


19. METHODOLOGICAL RESTRICTIONS OF THE THEORY OF ENSURING SAFETY OF THE ECOLOGICALLY DANGEROUS OBJECTS
by Aminaga Sadigov
Abstract

Describes the system theory of optimal safety control of ecologically dangerous objects in accordance with the concept of maximum security at minimum total cost for prevention, mitigation and insurance virtual accident. Regularity probability of an accident is excluded. Virtual accident is used. It has no regularities and virtually not required, but theoretically not be excluded because of error prevention and mitigation of the accident.  The theory is focused on advanced science intensive technologies for providing maximum safety of ecologically dangerous objects.


20. INFLUENCE OF CURING MEDIA ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF PALM KERNEL SHELL (PKS) CONCRETE
by Adewumi J. Babafemi & Kolapo O. Olusola
Abstract

The influence of curing media on the compressive strength of palm kernel shell concrete with varying coarse aggregate sizes (5-10 mm, 5-14 mm and 5-20 mm) and replacement level of granite with palm kernel shell (0-100 % in steps of 25 %) were investigated in this study. The results showed that the compressive strength was significantly influenced by the curing media. Compressive strength of palm kernel shell concrete decreased from curing media CM-1 to CM-3 (CM-1: complete immersion; CM-2: partial immersion; CM-3: no immersion) with increase in percentage replacement of granite with palm kernel shell from 0 % (control) to 100 % in steps of 25 %. However, compressive strength increased from curing media CM-1 to CM-3 with increase in coarse aggregate sizes. The ANOVA showed that the curing medium had significant effect on the compressive strength. The Duncan’s multiple range tests revealed that the mean compressive strengths at different aggregate sizes, replacement levels and curing media were significantly different.


21. THE SINE-COSINE FUNCTION METHOD FOR THE EXACT SOLUTIONS OF NONLINEAR PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
by Anwar Ja'afar Mohamad Jawad
Abstract

In this paper, we established a traveling wave solution by using Sine-Cosine function algorithm for nonlinear partial differential equations. The method is used to obtain the exact solutions for different types of nonlinear partial differential equations such as, the (2+1) - dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation, The Schrödinger-Hirota equation, Gardner equation, modified KdV equation, perturbed Burgers equation, and general Burger’s-Fisher equation, which are the important Soliton equations.


22. ON SOME PROPERTIES OF GOODNESS OF FIT MEASURES BASED ON STATISTICAL ENTROPY
by Atif Evren & Elif Tuna
Abstract

Goodness of fit tests can be categorized under several ways. One categorization may be due to the differences between observed and expected frequencies. The other categorization may be based upon the differences between some values of  distribution functions. Still the other one may be based upon the divergence of one distribution from the other. Some widely used and well known divergences like Kullback-Leibler divergence or Jeffreys divergence are based on entropy concepts. In this study, we compare some basic goodness of fit tests in terms of their statistical properties with  some applications.  


23. TRADITIONAL AND A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY: A REVIEW BY PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
by Elio Conte, Maria Pieralice, Vincenza Laterza1, Antonella Losurdo, Nunzia Santacroce, Sergio Conte, Antonio Federici & Alessandro Giuliani
Abstract

The aim of the present contribution is to give a review on a new methodology that we may use when we are employed in the analyis of one of the most fundamental signals that we encounter in electrophysiology, the R-R intervals in analysis of the ECG. First of all the limits of the current FFT application are discussed. Soon after the basic foundations of the CZF method are exposed and we expose and discuss in detail a large number of physiological and clinical applications, based directly on experimental results .The results evidence the importance to use the CZF method as non invasive marker in analysis of HRV.


24. GUIDED MODES IN A METAL-CLAD WAVEGUIDE COMPRISING A LEFT-HANDED MATERIAL AS A GUIDING LAYER
by Sofyan a. Taya & Khitam Y. Elwasife
Abstract

An investigation of guided modes supported by an asymmetrical three layer metal-clad waveguide structure is presented. A left-handed material (LHM) guiding layer sandwiched between a metal substrate and a dielectric cladding is considered. The dispersion characteristics of TE and TM polarizations are analyzed. The effect of the metal layer and the LHM parameters as well as the mode order on the dispersion characteristics and on the power flow is discussed in details. The results reveal many interesting properties for possible applications in optical waveguide sensing.


25. COAGULATION TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER IN PETROLEUM INDUSTRY USING POLY ALUMINUM CHLORIDE AND FERRIC CHLORIDE
by Hamidreza Farajnezhad & Parvin Gharbani
Abstract

Removal of pollutants produced by industrial plants is requirement for reuse of water and obtains to environmental standards.  Chemical coagulation process is an important and convectional method for wastewater treatment to reduce color, COD and TSS. Choice of a suitable coagulant for maximum contaminant removal and reduction in costs is the most important parameters of wastewater treatment. In this study the feasibility of using poly aluminum chloride instead of ferric chloride in petrochemical wastewater treatment has been investigated. Based on the results of jar test the poly aluminum chloride is more efficiency and the flocculated formed by poly aluminum chloride is larger than flocculated formed by ferric chloride and so separation is desirable. Results show that varying of pH has no significant effect on color removal of petroleum wastewater, so pH=7.5 was chosen as suitable pH.


26. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF WDM AND EDFA IN C-BAND FOR OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
by M.M. Ismail, M.A. Othman, H.A. Sulaiman, M.H. Misran & M.A. Meor Said
Abstract

This paper discussed about Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) and Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA) and the performance of both WDM and EDFA in C-band frequency range. Optical amplifier is used to compensate for the wakening of information during the transmission because of fiber optic attenuation. There are three general applications of optical amplifiers that are in-line amplifier, power amplifier and also preamplifier.  Basically this paper analyzed the performance of an optical system based on the different factors, focusing in C-band frequency. The factors are the different wavelengths, the different length of EDFA, and also the three different types of optical amplifier.


27. A BEAM ANALOGY PROCEDURE FOR STRENGTH OF INTERIOR SLAB-COLUMN CONNECTIONS OF UNBONDED POST-TENSIONED FLAT PLATES - PART A: DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHOD
by Shodolapo Oluyemi Franklin & Solomon Olukunle Ajayi
Abstract

The development of a beam analogy procedure to assess the unbalanced bending moment strength of interior slab-column connections of unbonded post-tensioned flat plates without shear reinforcement subjected to pure gravity or combined shear and transfer of moment loading is outlined in the present study. The slab sections framing into each column face are idealized as beam sections capable of developing the ultimate shear, bending moment or torsional capacity appropriate for the given loading conditions. In contrast to other investigators, the enhancing effect due to compressive membrane action is taken into account in a more logical fashion by the introduction of suitable modification factors. The method however ignores any influence of cracking in the post-service range on the interaction between torsion and shear.


28. INFLUENCE ALKALOIDS FROM THE MARINE-DERIVED STRAIN OF THE FUNGUS ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS FRESEN. ON THE GROWTH OF SEEDLING ROOTS OF BUCKWHEAT (FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH)
by Mikhail M. Anisimov, Elena L. Chaikina, Shamil Sh. Afiyatullov & Alekxey G. Klykov
Abstract

  

The effect of alkaloids fumitremorgin С (1), 12,13-dihydroxyfumitremorgin C (2), verruculogen (3), spirotryprostatin А (4), 6-methoxyspirotryprostatin В (5), spirotryprostatin F (6), fumiquinazoline С (7), bisdethiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (8), and tryptoquivaline F (9) from the marine-derived strain of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus on the growth of sprout roots of buckwheat at the concentration range 10-5-10-17 M was studied. It was shown that the alkaloids 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7  had a stimulatory effect on the growth of seedling roots of buckwheat. The stimulatory effect of compounds 3, 4, 6, 7 was shown at ultra-low concentration (10-12−10-16 M). The doze–effect curve had a bimodal character.


29. THE REDUCTION OF SELF-REDUCING CHROMITE PELLETS AT 1773 K: INTRAPELLET TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS
by Adolfo Pillihuaman Zambrano, Cyro Takano, Alberto E. Anduze Nogueira, Marcelo Breda Mourao & Solon Yasuhiko Tagusagawa
Abstract

The concentrations of Arsenic (As), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Mercury (Hg) ,Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb) and Manganese (Mn ) were estimated in the Cobs of maize obtained from three farmlands located  along Abitu  Avenue, Effanga Mkpa and Anantigha streets  all in  Calabar South local government area ., using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer .The results of the analysis showed the following sequence. Fe (1.27µg/g ) > Cr(0.22µg/g) >Mn (0.02µg/g) > Cd (0.01 µg/g) and Pb (0.01 µg/g  ) in samples at Abitu Avenue, Fe (0.91µg/g ) > Cr(0.17µg/g) > Cd (0.01 µg/g) and Mn (0.01 µg/g) in samples at effanga mkpa street and Fe (0.61µg/g ) > Cr(0.0.08 µg/g) > Cd (0.01 µg/g) in samples at anantigha street.The result revealed that the concentrations of Fe, Cr, Mn and Cd were highest in samples from Abitu avenue followed by those from Efanga Mkpa street while those from Anantigha street had the least concentrations of the  metals. .As,Co,Cu and Hg were not detected in samples from all the locations. Mn were not detected in samples from Anantigha street,while Pb was only detected in samples from Abitu Avenue.


30. DESIGNING AND METHODOLOGY OF AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE ROBOTS/ SELF GUIDED VEHICLES SYSTEMS, FUTURE TRENDS
by Sajjad Yaghoubi, Sanam Khalili, Reza Mohammad Nezhad, Mohammad Reza Kazemi & Mahsa Sakhaiifar
Abstract

 

Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) have been operating effectively in factories for decades. These vehicles have successfully used strategies of deliberately structuring the environment and adapting the process to the automation. The objective of this project is to develop automated guided vehicles systems that autonomously transport material from loading to unloading stations but our teams have been designing new AGVs with more maximizing productivity across industry. The potential of robot technology to increase the intelligence and adaptability of AGVs is largely unexploited in contemporary commercially-available vehicles. AGVs are increasingly becoming the popular mode of container transport and factories. These unmanned vehicles are used to transfer containers between two or more destination. The efficiency of a container terminal is directly related to the amount of the time each vessel spends in the port. Advanced technologies, and in particular automated guided vehicle systems, have been recently proposed as possible candidates for improving the terminal’s efficiency not only due to their abilities of significantly improving the performance but also to the repetitive nature of operations in container terminals. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of an AGV that has operated successfully in a relevant environment for an extended period of time without relying on any expensive systems. These vehicles have successfully used strategies of deliberately structuring the environment and adapting the process to the automation.


31. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN COBS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) FROM CALABAR SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF CROSS RIVER STATE NIGERIA
by Edem Christopher A. & Dosunmu Miranda I.
Abstract

The concentrations of Arsenic (As), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Mercury (Hg) ,Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb) and Manganese (Mn ) were estimated in the Cobs of maize obtained from three farmlands located  along Abitu  Avenue, Effanga Mkpa and Anantigha streets  all in  Calabar South local government area ., using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer .The results of the analysis showed the following sequence. Fe (1.27µg/g ) > Cr(0.22µg/g) >Mn (0.02µg/g) > Cd (0.01 µg/g) and Pb (0.01 µg/g  ) in samples at Abitu Avenue, Fe (0.91µg/g ) > Cr(0.17µg/g) > Cd (0.01 µg/g) and Mn (0.01 µg/g) in samples at effanga mkpa street and Fe (0.61µg/g ) > Cr(0.08 µg/g) > Cd (0.01 µg/g) in samples at anantigha street.The result revealed that the concentrations of Fe, Cr, Mn and Cd were highest in samples from Abitu avenue followed by those from Efanga Mkpa street while those from Anantigha street had the least concentrations of the  metals. .As,Co,Cu and Hg were not detected in samples from all the locations. Mn were not detected in samples from Anantigha street,while Pb was only detected in samples from Abitu Avenue.


32. ANALGESIC AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE MUSHROOM GANODERMA APPLANATUM
by Samuel O. Ede, Edward Olaniru, Sunday Otimenyin, John C. Aguiyi & Ekwere O. Ekwere
Abstract

Objective: The ethanolic extract of the mushroom, Ganoderma applanatum was investigated for the presence of secondary metabolites, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.

Material and Methods: The extract was subjected to phytochemical screening for the identification of secondary metabolites. Using intraperitoneal doses of 150, 300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg body weight, in vivo anti-inflammatory screening was carried out in rats using the rat paw oedema test while analgesic activity of the extract was done in mice using the hot plate test.

Results: The study shows that the extract has an LD50 of 3273 mg/kg and the presence of anthraquinones, flavonoids and steroids. Saponins and tannins were absent. Dose and time dependent suppression of egg-white induced oedema in the rat paw test was observed, with maximum percentage suppression occurring at 600mg/kg (59.2%). The extract also significantly prolonged the reaction time in mice to noxious thermal stimuli.

Conclusion: Ganoderma applanatum has potential as a source of useful analgesic and anti-inflammatory principles.














Academic Research Publishing Agency Press