Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 12, Issue 3 (September, 2012)

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1. COMPLICATED LARGE TIME BEHAVIOR IN POROUS MEDIUM EQUATION WITH ABSORPTIONS
by Liangwei Wang
Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the complicated large time behavior of solutions to the Cauchy problem of porous medium equation with absorptions when the initial value belongs to a weighted L space. 


2. GEOMETRICAL RESEARCH OF RARE TYPES OF CYCLIC SURFACES

by S.N. Krivoshapko & Christian A. Bock Hyeng

Abstract

This review article is devoted to an analysis of the literature on the geometric research of cyclic surfaces with generating circles of constant or various diameters. The review contains the description of 4 subclasses of cyclic surfaces with the attraction of 23 references, and these are practically all original sources dealing with geometry of the cyclic surfaces in question.


3. CLASSIFICATION OF CYCLIC SURFACES AND GEOMETRICAL RESEARCH OF CANAL SURFACES
by S.N. Krivoshapko & Christian A. Bock Hyeng
Abstract

This review article is devoted to an analysis of the literature on the geometric researches of cyclic surfaces with generating circles of constant and various diameters. The shells with cyclic middle surfaces are particularly useful as connecting parts of pipelines, in spiral chambers of turbines in hydroelectric power stations, in public and commercial buildings, for example, as coverings of stadiums, in water attractions, and so on. This review article contains 45 references, and these are practically all original sources dealing with geometry of canal surfaces and with classification of cyclic surfaces.


4. APPLICATION OF CONSTRUCTION DEMOLITION WASTE FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF SUBGRADE AND SUBBASE LAYERS
by Robert M. Brooks & Mehmet Cetin
Abstract

The objective of the paper is to study the feasibility of the application of Construction Demolition Waste (CDW) for improving the performance of subgrade and susbbase layers in the highways. CDW (30% by weight) along with a varied percentage of Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) was added to a locally available soil.  On this mixture, Optimum Moisture Content (OMC), California Bearing Ratio (CBR), Maximum Dry Density (MDD), and Free Swell tests were conducted. The results were analyzed and discussed for the application of CDW for improving the performance of subgrade and subbase layers in the highways.

When the subgrade is strengthened with CDW and CKD, and subbase of CDW and CKD is used, for the most economical pavement design, a reduction of 12 inches of subbase thickness is achieved while keeping the top two layer thicknesses the same. When the subgrade is strengthened with CDW and CKD, and subbase of CDW and CKD is used, for commonly used layer thicknesses, a reduction of 2 inches is gained both in the thicknesses of surface course and base course.

5. TWO METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF THIN ELASTIC OPEN HELICOIDAL SHELLS
by Krivoshapko & Gbaguidi Aïsse Gérard
Abstract

Thin open helicoidal shells are used in machine-building and in civil engineering. The numerical analysis of shell stress-strain state was fulfilled with the help of Runge-Kutta method. The analytical asymptotic method of analysis is presented for thin elastic open helicoidal shallow shells given in curvilinear non-orthogonal conjugate coordinates. 


6. THE SONOCHEMICAL REACTORS WITH SYMMETRIC OSCILLATORY SYSTEMS OF THE ACOUSTIC CELLS
by Raul Rink, Sergey Shestakov & Viktor Babak
Abstract

The description of the reactor with symmetric oscillatory system of the acoustic cell, designed with application of mathematical model of multibubble cavitations and theories of similarity of acoustic cavitational processes is displayed. The example of the project of the reactor which will be made for republic Belarus is displayed. Is described its comparison with the known from technical and patent literature analogs of acoustic cavitational reactors suitable for application in food sonochemistry. The reactor is intended for physical and chemical processing the ultrasonic cavitations of true and colloidal solutions, and also disperse systems (emulsions and suspensions) by initiation in them sonochemical reactions and cavitational erosion of their phases. In addition to these solutions, emulsions and suspensions in these reactors can be processed chemically pure water and other chemically pure solvents. In them is the impact on their physical-chemical state of liquids, the intensification of in them chemical reactions and initiation of new by changing the dipole-dipole and ion-dipole interactions in their environments and phases, as well as increasing the dispersion of multiphase systems, the destruction of bacteria and stabilization of their number. It is shown that the proposed requirements to the size of the solid parts of oscillatory system acoustic cell cavitations power and performance of the reactor is increases, the cavitation erosion surfaces of its parts and useless loss of energy  elastic wave is decreases.


7. A SIMPLE PROGRAM FOR SOLVING NONLINEAR INITIAL VALUE PROBLEM USING ADOMIAN DECOMPOSITION METHOD
by F.A. Hendi, H.O.Bakodah, M. Almazmumy & H. Alzumi
Abstract

The Adomian method is widely used in approximate calculation, its main demerit is that it is very difficult and complex to calculate Adomian's polynomials. Many researchers have suggested different methods and algorithm for computing these polynomials. In this paper, a mathematica program is prepared to solve the initial value problem in ordinary differential equation of the first order. Simplicity and efficiency of the algorithm presented in this paper are illustrated briefly in the examples.


8. A STUDY OF THE INSTANTANEOUS CENTERS OF ROTATION IN SINGULARITIES OF 3-DOF FULLY PARALLEL PLANAR MANIPULATORS
by Soheil Zarkandi
Abstract

Finding singular configurations (singularities) of manipulators is obviously important, because these configurations are the ones where the instantaneous kinematics becomes indeterminate. In this paper, singularities of a three degree-of-freedom (DOF) fully parallel planar manipulator are analyzed with the aid of two Jacobian matrices which are expressed through instantaneous centers of rotation and it will be shown that how these centers are located in each type of singularities.


9. THE EFFECT OF THERMAL AGEING ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AL/2.0% GLASS REINFORCED COMPOSITE
by Ihom A.Paul, Nyior G. Bem & Ibrahim G. Zamanni
Abstract

The effect of thermal ageing on microstructure and some mechanical properties of Al/2.0% glass reinforced composite have been studied. The results have shown that thermal ageing of the as-cast composite has effect on the microstructure. Precipitates were formed in the matrix of the composite. The precipitates were the second phase, as distinguished from the aluminum matrix, which was lighter in color. The as-cast composite had a hardness value of 20.1HRB and a tensile strength value of 217.87N/mm2. After thermal ageing at 150 o C, 170 o C, 190 o C, and 210 o C, the composite showed great improvement in hardness as well as tensile strength. The highest value of hardness of 35.5HRB and tensile strength of 381.87N/mm2 were obtained at 190oC, after ageing for 2hrs. The study found that the microstructure of the thermal aged composite was related to the hardness and the tensile strength of the composite. The nature of the precipitates formed determined the hardness and the tensile strength of the composite.

10. STUDY OF OPTICAL AND CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PROPERTIES OF CBD GROWN CDS THIN FILMS
by Awodugba Ayodeji Oyediran, Sanusi Yekini Kolawole & Adedokun Oluwaseun
Abstract  

Optimal homogenous cadmium sulfide film was synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique using a bath containing cadmium chloride, ammonium chloride, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea. The film was characterized by optical absorption, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The film was observed to have an average transmission value of about 67.8% in the wavelength range of 500-1100nm and low transmittance near fundamental absorption region. The absorbance of the CdS film was observed to be low in the VIS/NIR regions and high in the UV region. The reflectance is found to be high in the wavelength range of 400-550nm and a gradual fall in the reflectance in the wavelength range of 600-1100nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the film shows that the CdS film has hexagonal phase with lattice parameter a=b 2.11 Å and c=6.7 Å, polycrystalline with orientation along different planes and crystallite size ranges from 12.9nm to 15.4nm. SEM micrograph of the CdS film describes the formation of holes between the particles indicating large porosity and agglomeration of small crystallites in certain regions. The optical properties and the energy band gap value reported in this work are in agreement with that reported in the literature.


11. AB-INITIO AND DFT STUDY OF POLYTHIOPHENE ENERGY BAND GAP AND SUBSTITUTIONS EFFECTS
by K. Dguigui, M. El Hallaoui & S. Mbarki
Abstract

Polytiophene (PTh) and it’s derivatives are the polymer based materials with a π-conjugation framework. Pth is a useful photoelectric material and can be used in the organic semi conductor devices, such as PLED, OLED and solar cells. Based on molecular structure and property relationship (QSPR, QSAR). Pth contain different substituents in position 3 and 4 such as electron-donating or electron-withdrawing groups.

All molecular geometries were optimized at BLYP/6-31G* level of theory. The energy Gap Eg between HOMO and LUMO level is related to the π conjugation in the PTh polymer backbone. In this study, the BLYP/6-31G*calculations were performed for the non-substituted and 3,4-substituted to investigate the stable geometries. The theoretical calculations show that substituted are stable and have a minor of Eg and have a good agreement with those of the experimental data.

12. THE INFLUENCE OF DIP TIME ON THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ANTIMONY TRI-SULPHIDE THIN FILMS
by M.D. Jeroh & D.N. Okoli
Abstract

 Thin films of antimony tri-sulphide were successfully deposited on glass substrates from an acidic medium at room temperature using chemical bath deposition technique. The thickness of the films was obtained from surface profile analysis using a Dektak Stylus surface profiler. The thickness of the films obtained in this research lies between 0.5μm and 1.0μm depending on the dip time. Optical characterization was performed on the films using an AVASPEC-2048 UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 200-900nm. The effect of dip time on the optical properties such as transmittance, reflectance, absorbance, optical conductivity, refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constant was reported. It was observed from our findings that dip time has a considerable effect on each of the optical properties studied. The band gap energy of the films was observed to decrease from 1.80eV to 1.40eV as dip time increases from 12hrs to 48hrs respectively.


13. THE IMPORTANCE OF GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION COSTS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF HYDROELECTRIC DAMS: COMPARATIVE EXAMPLES IN MEXICO
by Adolfo Vázquez Contreras, Moisés Dávila Serrano, Rafael Acosta Quevedo & Juan Sánchez Pérez
Abstract

Geological and geophysical exploration activities ofHydropower dams’ are analyzed in a qualitative and semi-quantitative basis. Information about an under-construction hydro dam is included as well. Considered activities are those from feasibility and design support stages. Mexico biggest dams geological exploration works and their associated costs are reviewed and their impact on their construction and safety. Big dams finance underpinning depends on good hydroenergetic assessment besides an accurate geological model obtained before construction activities begin.


14. ACCELERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF VEHICLES IN RURAL PENNSYLVANIA
by Robert M. Brooks
Abstract

The objective of the paper is to determine the acceleration characteristics of vehicles in rural Pennsylvania. The floating car method was used to observe the acceleration characteristics during overtaking maneuvers. The acceleration characteristics from rest were observed manually. Various acceleration values for different vehicles were determined. The maximum value of acceleration observed was that of SUVs and the minimum value of acceleration observed was that of buses.

A comparison of observed passing sight distances on a two lane highway in rural Pennsylvania with that of AASHTO was made. The observed passing sight distances were shorter by 18% and 8% at 35 km/h and 85 km/h design speeds.  This is because at lower design speeds, the observed acceleration was higher.

15. SELECTIVE TRYPANOCIDE ACTIVITY OF SOME SUBSTITUTED THIOSEMICARBAZONES OF CITRAL FROM BENIN CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS ESSENTIAL OIL AND THEIR TOXICITY AGAINST ARTEMIA SALINA LEACH
by Amoussatou Sakirigui, Salomé D.S. Kpoviessi, Fernand Gbaguidi, Cosme Kossouoh, Joanne Bero, Joelle Quetin-Leclercq, Mansourou Moudachirou, Jacques Poupaert & Georges C. Accrombessi
Abstract

Extraction and analysis GC/FID and GC/MS showed that citral (neral + geranial) is the major compound of the essential oil of Benin Cymbopogoncitratus. This aldehyde was used as target for the hemi-synthesis in situ of the semicarbazone and substituted thiosemicarbazones. Their structures were confirmed by spectrometric analysis IR, 1H and 13C NMR. Their antiparasitic activities have been evaluated on Trypanosomabruceibrucei by determining their half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50). Among them, citral 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (IC50 = 1.96 µM) and citralthiosemicarbazone (IC50 = 7.6 µM) showed a strong trypanocidal activity. Citral 2-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (IC50 = 60.87 µM) showed a moderate activity. Citral 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (IC50 = 172.84 µM) and citralsemicarbazone (IC50 = 234.64 µM) were less actives. Toxicity test against Artemiasalina indicated that citral 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone is the most toxic compound (LC50 = 70.70 µM). The toxicities of other compounds are low. Citral 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone could have excellent anti-cancer properties. The selectivity index calculated from these data showed that all the molecules obtained are selective about the parasites Trypanosomabruceibrucei.


16. FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ CHOICE IN PURSUING TO HIGHER INSTITUTIONS: A FUZZY SET OPERATION APPROACH
by Daud Mohamad, Aidatulsima Abdullah, Siti Shafiqah Razali & Suhaila Zulkifli
Abstract

Choosing a suitable higher institution for pursuing students’ education is inevitably important. Many factors have to be considered so as to optimize the favorable environment of the students stay and learning.  The factors are normally subjective in nature and difficult to evaluate tangibly. Fuzzy set theory is one of the approaches that can be used to cater this difficulty. In this paper, we evaluate and rank the main criteria that preferred by students in making their decision in choosing a university in Malaysia to pursue their study. Those criteria are reputation, location, programs offered, fees, size of university, scholars and loan, intake regulation, campus facilities and campus environment. A questionnaire is distributed using convenient sampling to a group of students and their responses are analyzed using fuzzy set operation. The method used is simple and applicable to the problem.  It is found that the fee is the most considered criteria by students when choosing the university and the campus environment as the last criteria in the ranking. This investigation gives useful information as an input to strategize university planning in promoting and attracting more students to enroll at their university besides improving the service quality to the students.


17. INVESTIGATION OF SUBSURFACE LITHOLOGY AND PROLIFIC AQUIFER USING VES IN EDJEKOTA, DELTA STATE NIGERIA
by Emmanuel Chukwuemeka Okolie & Ogheneovo Akpoyibo
Abstract

Geophysical investigation of subsurface lithology and aquifer distribution was done using Schlumberger array in Edjekota, Ughelli North LGA of Delta State This community is prone to annual flooding resulting in massive deposition of materials over many years thereby creating problem of potable water. This problem of potable water has increased in recent time due to increase in population density, petroleum exploration activities and spillages along the creeks. Thus, ten Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were made using Schlumberger array in Edjekota Delta State to obtain geophysical field data in order to investigate the occurrence of groundwater in relation to the depth and thickness of viable aquifer. The field data measured from SAS 1000 terrameter were plotted in a bi-log graph to obtain sounding curves. The curves were analyzed and iterated. The qualitative results showed that Edjekota has homogeneous subsurface stratification with AAK, KHAA, AKHA and KQHQ curve types. The generated geoelectric sections have five to six sub-layers to a depth of over 70 m with hugh loose sand deposits beneath in Edjekota. Although water seems to be everywhere in Edjekota, prolific aquifer is within 30 – 50 metres.


18. ANALYSIS ON DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR FOR PURE COPPER PROCESSED THROUGH EQUAL CHANNEL ANGULAR PRESSING DIE
by Raj Mohan R., R.Venkatraman & S. Raghuraman
Abstract

Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a feasible forming technique to process the material through a die without a change in cross sectional area of sample. The current work has been carried out to identify the deformation behavior of pure copper and its flow behavior along the die using ANSYS V12. The Analysis is carried out for different channel angles of 90˚, 110˚ and 120˚ for different hydrostatic pressure conditions. The results show that deformation along the die during pressing is inhomogeneous for various channel angles under different hydrostatic pressure conditions. Total displacement of sample during pressing decreases with increases with channel angle.


19. TORQUE RIPPLE MINIMIZATION, SUPPRESS HARMONICS, AND NOISE OF BRUSHLESS PM SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS DERIVED BY FIELD ORIENTED CONTROL
by Hamdy Mohamed Soliman & S. M. Hakim
Abstract

Conventional field oriented control for brushless PM synchronous motor depends upon mathematical model so the parameters variations, noise, electromagnetic interface, non-sinusoidal flux and harmonics in the motor or in power converter will cause performance deteriorating of the drive system. They are causing speed oscillations, ripples in torque, ripples in current and an increase the total harmonics distortion (THD). This paper is  addressed these  problems and suggested novel two PI controller for solving these problems. One for the torque and the other for the flux. The first PI controller is feeding from the torque error between the reference and estimated torques to get new q-axis current component representing modifier current arises from uncertain things such as earliest problems. This current will add to reference q-axis current to get robust new q-axis current to satisfy the drive requirement and solve the torque problem. With robust current, the total harmonic distortion is a decrease but doesn’t  reach the best value so the other PI controller is used to adjust the THD. In this PI controller, the d-axis flux is compared to rotor permanent magnet flux to solve this problem arises from non-sinusoidal of the magnetic flux. The output of the PI controller is introduced to the reference d-axis current. The new d-axis current will reach the best value of THD. The simulation of the proposed controller is compared to the simulation of conventional controller to show the advantages of the proposed controller. To display the effectiveness of the second PI controller (flux controller), the result of the new controller is displayed with new PI torque controller only and with new two proposed controller. MATLAB SIMULINK is used to simulate the drive system.


20. A NEW APPROACH OF ITERATIVE LEARNING CONTROL STRATEGY TOWARDS TUNING OF PI CONTROLLER IN A SPHERICAL TANK LEVEL PROCESS
by S. Sathishbabu & P.K. Bhaba
Abstract

This paper provides the design and implementation of an Enhanced Iterative Learning control Strategy (EILCS) in a spherical tank level process. The dynamics of the process are described by differential equation and worst case model parameters are identified by influencing the step test technique. By means relay feedback technique, the periodic reference signal is generated and utilized as the input of EILCS loop. From the input and output chattering signals of the EILCS, optimized PI controller parameters are identified using Recursive Least Squares (RLS) fitting technique. The simulation results are furnished to illustrate the effectiveness of proposed method. Robustness is also analyzed. 


21. COMPARISON OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF THREE BRACEDS BRBF, CBF, Chevron
by Mostafa Gholami, Hamid Reza Naseri & Mohammad Givehchi
Abstract

Considering permanent earthquake outbreak risk construction resistant structure is one of the most important parts of structure engineering. In this part main attention is pay to lateral load bearing systems. Braced frames are one type of the most famous lateral load bearing systems that use very broadly in Iran . Purpose of this research is comparing three kind of braced frames. In Thus BRBF, CHEVORN and CBF have been compared in relation to dynamic and static behaviours by ABAQUS software and limited components method. In order to do this first some laboratory samples of different braced frames were modelled and analysis by software and its ability to offer acceptable result was ovulated with comparing of laboratory results. Then limited components model of three kind braced frames was built and non linear static analysis load and non linear dynamic analysis was done on them result were driven in from force – move  diagrams and behaviour of three kind braced frames were compared .Resulted indicated that BRBF in relation to energy-depreciation and general behaviour are very better than other two kind and increase resistance of frame against lateral loads .


22. CHIRAL CHANGES ON RATIO OF THE COMPRESSIONAL VELOCITY TO THE SHEAR VELOCITY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDES THROUGH HIGH-FREQUENCY ENERGY RADIATION: APPLICATION TO THE FEBRUARY 27, 2010 CHILE EARTHQUAKE AND JAPAN EARTHQUAKE ON MARCH 11, 2011
by H. Torres-Silva & D. Torres Cabezas
Abstract

  

In this short paper, we define and determine the connection between an electromagnetic chiral theory and the Hara’s relation (high-frequency energy radiation from the arrival time of a P-wave) under a chiral approach. We consider the possibility that gravity breaks parity, with left and right handed gravitons coupling to matter with a different Newton ’s constant and show that this would affect the earth dynamics and induce strong earthquakes. This theory allows to determine chiral changes on ratio of the compressional velocity to the shear velocity for the estimation of earthquake magnitudes.  Through measurements of high-frequency energy radiation, it is possible to determine the amplitude of the strong earthquakes in Chile and Japan .


23. FIXED POINT THEOREM IN FUZZY METRIC SPACE FOR SEMI-COMPATIBLE MAPPINGS
by V.H. Badshah, Arihant Jain & S.K. Prasad
Abstract

In this paper, the concept of semi-compatibility and weak compatibility in Fuzzy metric space has been applied to prove a common fixed point theorem. We improve the result of Kumar and Pant [14] by dropping the condition of continuity of the mapping and using semi-compatibility and weak compatibility of the mappings in place of compatibility.


24. THE PROPERTY (E.A.) AND THE FIXED POINT THEOREM IN FUZZY METRIC
by V.H. Badshah, Arihant Jain & S.K. Prasad
Abstract

In this paper, we prove a common fixed point theorem for semi-compatible and occasionally weakly compatible mappings in Fuzzy metric space using the property (E.A.) and implicit relation. Our result generalizes the result of Singh and Jain [14].


25. THE INFLUENCE OF ANGLE OF INTERNAL FRICTION ON EMBEDMENT DEPTHS FOR CANTILEVER SHEET PILES
by Shodolapo Oluyemi Franklin & Abiodun Luqman Olopade
Abstract

The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of the angle of internal friction on the embedment depth with reference to cantilever sheet piles in cohesionless soils. Two design approaches were employed towards this end, namely the conventional CECP2 method and the limit state design approach of BS8002, and the results of both codes have been compared and contrasted. It was found that in general the embedment depth decreases with increase in angle of internal friction, ϕ. For the two design methods it was observed that with increase in ϕ the difference in embedment depths given by both codes reduces, and at a high ϕ value of approximately 35o, the difference was practically zero. Furthermore for all values of ϕ below 35o, the BS8002 estimates of embedment depths were higher than that given by CEC


26. ADSORPTION- DESORPTION FOR SOME HEAVY METALS IN THE PRESENCE OF SURFACTANT ON SIX AGRICULTURAL SOILS
by Rounak M. Shariff & Lawen S. Esmail
Abstract

The present work investigate the effects of surfactant on the sorption of some heavy metals as Zinc, Nicle and Copper at different initial concentrations on six selected soil samples through batch equilibrium experiments. The pH-adjusted for each metal has been varied from 3 to7. Linear, Freundlich and Langmuir models were used to describe the sorption processes. The sorption data fitted very well with both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm model which gave high correlation coefficients. Freundlich coefficient KF values for adsorption process varied between 1.582 - 2.121 mlg-1, 1.781- 2.054 mlg-1 and 1.291- 1.958 mlg-1 for Zinc, Nicle and Copper respectively. Langmuir coefficient KL values for adsorption process varied between 0.012 - 0.029 mlg-1, 0.017 - 0.057 mlg-1 and 0.008- 0.021 mlg-1 for Zinc, Nicle and Copper respectively. The pseudo- second order kinetic model was most agreeable with the experiments.  An inionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at critical micelles concentration (cmc ) were tested for their adsorption-desorption potential, was found to be fairly effective to removal of more than 61, 64, and 68% of sorbed metals Zinc, Nicle and Copper respectively. The Freundlich coefficient for desorption processes KFdes values varied between 1.637 - 1.944 mlg-1, 1.652- 2.311 mlg-1 and 1.546- 2.304 mlg-1 for Zinc, Nicle and Copper respectively. Langmuir coefficient KLdes values for desorption process varied between 0.025 - 0.080 mlg-1, 0.083 - 0.117 mlg-1 and 0.041- 0.222 mlg-1 for Zinc, Nicle and Copper respectively.














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