Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 12, Issue 2 (August, 2012)

To read and print the PDF files of the Journal Archive you will need to have Acrobat Reader 
 If you have any technical or content problems contact : publisher@arpapress.com

1. COMPARISON OF ELECTRO-THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS BASED ON Si/SiGe AND AlGaAs/GaAs
by Roberto Marani & Anna Gina Perri
Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present a comparison of electro-thermal performance of two HBTs based on Si/SiGe and on AlGaAs/GaAs, by means of an analytical electro-thermal model, already proposed by us, able to calculate the temperature and current distribution for any integrated device, whose structure can be represented as an arbitrary number of superimposed layers with a 2-D embedded thermal source.  


2. EVALUATING THE RETIRING PENSIONS BY SIMPLE REPLACEMENT RATES AND CURRENT VALUES OF THE RETIRING PENSIONS

by Tudor Colomeischi

Abstract

The first two parts of the paper carry out an approach over some issues related to the gross rates levels of revenues replacement within retiring pensions of the current pension systems. In the following parts of the paper, the current values of the gross and net retiring pensions are described, concluding the weight average pension and the average current weight value of the retiring pension.


3. STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF AN ANTIPLANE ELECTRO-ELASTIC CONTACT PROBLEM WITH TRESCA FRICTION LAW
by Mohamed Dalah & Fouad-Lazhar Rahmani
Abstract

We study the antiplane frcitional contact models for electro-elastic materials, both in quasistatic case. The material is assumed to be electro-elastic and the friction is modeled with Tresca's law and the foundation is assumed to be electrically conductive. First we establish the existence of a unique weak solution for the model. Moreover, the Proof is based on arguments of evolutionary inequalities.


4. SEVERAL INTEGRAL INEQUALITIES CONCERNING AN OPEN QUESTION
by Qinglong Huang
Abstract

In this paper, several new integral inequalities are established. These inequalities extended some existing results in the literature on an open question and hence they are also better answers to the open question.


5. INVOLVEMENT OF SERETONIN IN COLD-INDUCED THERMOGENESIS IN MUSCOVY DUCKLINGS: A HPLC STUDY
by Chaymae El Alaoui, Meriem Slimani, Hérvé Barré, Younes Filali-Zegzouti & Taoufiq Fechtali
Abstract

On the basis of its marked thermogenic and lipolytic effects in birds, glucagon appears as a strong mediator of avian nonshivering thermogenesis (NST).The present work was performed to test whether glucagon administration acts directly on avian thermoregulatory mechanisms by inducing thermogenesis or indirectly through the participation of serotonin (5-HT); a widely distributed monoamine neurotransmitter within the brain of vertebrates that contributes to the control of neural activity. Our experiments aim at studying the effects of intraperitoneal injection of glucagon on metabolic rates and energy metabolites using cold-acclimated ducklings which developed muscle nonshivering thermogenesis. Our results showed that at ambient temperature (25°C), circulating serotonin was decreased in cold acclimated ducklings (–37%) and thermoneutral ducklings. An intraperitoneal injection of glucagon (360 μg.kg–1) was followed after 10 min by prominent lipolysis and a large increase in circulating serotonin. The increase of serotonin levels was less pronounced in cold acclimated ducklings. According to our results, the thermogenic action of glucagon in birds involves at least the stimulation of serotonin and lipids. We suggest the presence of a potential adaptive mechanism associated with peripheral serotoninergic activity during cold acclimation and leading to nonshivering thermogenesis.


6. A RELIABLE TREATMENT OF HOMOTOPY PURTURBATION METHOD FOR SOLVING SECOND PAINLEVE EQUATIONS
by Esmail Hesameddini & Habibolla Latifizadeh
Abstract

The second Painlevé equations which are nonlinear ordinary differential equations, whose solutions are called the Painlevé transcendent, were discovered about a hundred years ago by Painlevé, Gambier and their colleagues. In this paper we are interested in rational solutions associated with the generalized second Painlevé (PII) which involves a parameter, α¹0 and  α =NÎZ  and can be obtained by a reliable algorithm based on Homotopy perturbation method. In Homotopy perturbation method the used embedding parameter can be easily derived. The solutions are given by a series in which, each term is easily obtained and the diagonal Padé approximants are effectively used in the analysis to capture the essential behaviour of the solution. It may be concluded that Homotopy methodology is very powerful and efficient in finding analytical as well as numerical solutions for a wide class of linear and nonlinear differential equations. The significance of this technique lies in the fact that it can create a relationship between the two important branches of findings, which are of interest to the mathematicians in the present decade; one is the study and analysis of the Painlevé equations and the other is finding solutions by using Homotopy perturbation method.  


7. FIXED POINT THEOREM IN MENGER SPACE FOR SEMI-COMPATIBLE MAPPINGS
by Arihant Jain, Nirmala Gupta & V.K. Gupta
Abstract

There have been a number of generalizations of metric space. One such generalization is Menger space initiated  by Menger [4]. It is a probabilistic generalization in which we assign to any two points x and y, a distribution function Fx,y.  Schweizer and Sklar [8] studied this concept and  gave some fundamental results on this space.  Sehgal and Bharucha-Reid [9] obtained a generalization of Banach Contraction Principle on a  complete Menger space which is a milestone in developing fixed-point theory in Menger space.

Recently, Jungck and Rhoades [3] termed a pair of self maps to be coincidentally commuting or equivalently weakly compatible if they commute at their coincidence points. Sessa [10] initiated the tradition of improving commutativity in fixed-point theorems by introducing the notion of weak commuting maps in metric spaces.  Jungck [2] soon enlarged this concept to compatible maps. The notion of compatible mapping in a Menger space has been introduced by Mishra [5]. 

Cho, Sharma and Sahu [1] introduced the concept of semi-compatibility in a  d-complete topological space.  Popa [7] proved interesting fixed point results using implicit real functions and semi-compatibility in d-complete topological space.  In the sequel, Pathak and Verma [6] proved a common fixed point theorem in Menger  space using compatibility  and weak compatibility.

In this paper a fixed point theorem for six self maps has been proved using the concept of semi-compatible maps and weak compatible maps.

8. PHYSICAL DOCTRINE OF TURBULENCE – A REVIEW
by Jaak Heinloo
Abstract

This paper reviews the physical background, the formalism and the outcomes of the approach to the treatment of turbulence problems developed by the author (called the physical doctrine of turbulence). The approach is based on the classical conception of turbulence by L. F. Richardson and A. N. Kolmogorov as of a form of organization of motion of fluids characterized by the incessant restoration of their hierarchic eddy structure through the cascading process maintained by the divergence of scales of gain and disposal (dissipation) of the motion energy. The explained formalism is built up on two principles and on one method. The review is concentrated on an outcome of the approach advancing the physical background of the turbulence mechanics and enlarging its application capacity. Two particular formulations of the turbulence mechanics realizing the advantage are commented.


9. WESTERN BALKANS BANK WEBSITE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS USING WAI INDEX
by Aleksandar Božikic, Srecko Stankovic, Vojkan Vaskovic & Marko Rankovic
Abstract

Electronic banking has become very important banking channel in the efforts to reach the Customers. Comparing bank’s websites is a tedious job unless one has a standardized and clearly defined methodology of evaluation. Quality of web home pages was determined using an original Web Assessment Index, which focuses on four categories: accessibility, speed, navigability and content. The idea is not to find out which site is better rather than the other, but to identify the mistakes made with a view to correcting them, thus improving the operations conducted through the Internet. Research is focused on the Balkan’s countries.  In this paper we have developed and presented the WAI index mathematical model. These findings will be useful for both researchers and practitioners who seek to understand the issues relevant to electronic banking.


10. DESIGN OF AN EIT BASED HIGH SENSITIVE LCORR BIOSENSOR
by S. Khosravi, Sh. Ebrahimi, K. Abbasian & L. Hayati
Abstract

 

In this paper, we have studied the influence of Electromagnetically Induced   Transparency (EIT) phenomena, by inserted Λ type 3-level nanoparticles on performance of Liquid Core Optical Ring Resonator (LCORR) Biosensor. We have investigated sensitivity improvement in this high detective biosensor theoretically. Where, we have compared two cases of normal and EIT based sensors. We have observed that by changing refractive index, the resonance modes will shift and the finesse of resonances will be enhanced considerably.  


11. ORGANIC TRANSISTORS FIELD EFFECT PERFORMANCES
by Ouiza Boughias, Mohamed-Said Belkaid, Farida Nemmar & Djedjiga Hatem
Abstract

In the late 70 the researchers have shown the existence of electrically conductive polymers. For this the polymer must be conjugate which have give birth to organic electronics. This field of research motivates seriously some industrial. The conductor polymers are used like active layer in the devices like as organics transistors, solar cells and electroluminescent leds. Organic transistors field effects are particulary interesting because their manufacturing processes are much low complex and low cost than their equivalents made from inorganic materials. Among the parameters characterizing the organic transistors we find the switching speed which is the fraction of the mobility of charge carriers through the conduction channel length. The organic transistors must submit an acceptable life during because the organic semiconductor materials are sensitive to oxygen and humidity.

The advantages of organic transistors to classical transistors are light weight, flexibility and low cost of manufacturing process at large surface.

In this paper, we study the electrical proprieties of organic transistor and compare it to classical transistors.

12. RATE OF POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC BACTERIA IN FRESH SOFT CHEESES MADE ON SMALL DAIRY FARMS IN SERBIA
by Dragana Pešic Mikulec, Zoran Tambur, Sonja Radakovic, Ivan Mileusnic & Danimir Jevremovic
Abstract

This study investigated the rate of potentially pathogenic bacteria in fresh soft cheeses made on small dairy farms in Serbia. This type of cheese is made on individual farms from cow, sheep and goat milk. White fresh cheeses from mountain villages of Serbia are economically important for these areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate the micro flora of white cheeses with special emphasis on the interaction between the potentially pathogenic bacteria and starter lactic acid bacteria involved in the fermentation of the cheeses depending on their geographical origin. The most frequently isolated pathogenic microorganisms were Enterococci (log count 7.95), Micrococaceae (log count 8.66), yeasts (log count 5.48) and moulds (log count 1.87). Moulds were more frequently present in samples taken during summer and winter. The most frequently isolated moulds were: Penicilllium spp. 35%, Alternaria spp. 11% and Cladosporium spp. 17% during summer, and Penicillium spp. 23% and Rhizopus spp. 15.4% during autumn. The most frequently isolated lactic acid bacteria were Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei.


13. LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE EXPERIENCES OF PRIVATIZATION IN SOME COUNTRIES WITH DIFFERENT ECONOMIES (SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE EXPERIENCE OF PRIVATIZATION IN EGYPT)
by Ali Abusalah Elmabrok Mohammed, Ng Kim Soon, Abdalla Ab Sinusi Saiah & Abdul Talib Bin Bon
Abstract

From all the accumulated experience of privatization, new results have been added to the outcome of international experiences in this area, as these experiences are worthy of study so as to avoid the negative aspects and follow the positive aspects in the implementation of future privatization projects , but the majority of findings suggest the importance of taking the circumstances and the local variables of economic, social, political and legal into account when preparing the strategies of privatization and their implementations, as there are inferred global indications which show  that the experiences of privatization cannot transfer its entirety from one country to another, and this paper focused on a number of international experiences in the privatization program for the countries that differ in its economic, and vary in the variables of political and social REO , in the periods of the privatization program, with particular reference to the Egyptian experience.


14. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF AMORPHOUS CuGaxIn25-xTe74 FILMS AND EFFECT OF ANNEALING ON THESE PROPERTIES
D. Ghoneim, F.M. Hafez, S.N. El-Sayed, N.A. Mohsen & A.M.A. Mahmoud
Abstract

The optical properties of amorphous films were studied in the wavelength range (200-2500 nm). Transmittance and reflectance measurements were used to calculate the energy gap width, the width of the localized states, and the optical constants (n, k, ε′ and ε"). The optical absorption coefficient of the films exceeds 104 cm-1 and the band gaps were found to increase from 1.137 eV to 1.339 eV with increasing Ga content, while the width of the tails of the localized states increase from 0.055 eV to 0.11eV. These values of Eg correspond to the transition from the valence band maximum to conduction band minimum. They are suitable for   the absorption of the photons in the solar spectra. Other methods were used to calculate the optical constant, Swanpoeple and graphical methods were successively used to determine the thickness of the homogeneous films but the optical constant slightly decreased from those obtained by using transmittance and reflectance data. All the empirical relations used to estimate the value of the refractive index by using the value of the energy gap are in good agreement with the experimental data. By a­nnealing all the samples at 323, 348, 373, 398, 423 and 453oK, the value of the energy gap is affected. It decreased with increasing annealing temperature. This is attributed to gradual change from the amorphous structure to the partial crystalline structure.


15. IMPACT OF DOMESTIC WASTE WATER ON SEED GERMINATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF RICE AND WHEAT
by Aditya Kishore Dash
Abstract

In the present study, impact of domestic waste water (sewage) on seed germination and some physiological parameters of rice and wheat were studied. Use of sewage for irrigation purposes has emerged an important way to utilize its nutrients and removal of its pollution load by growing tolerant plant species. A two way analysis of variance showed that, the difference in rate of seed germination was statistical significant among different concentration of treatment (F1 =  250.71 & 80.27) as well as between different time period of incubation (F2 = 8.96 & 4.5) for both rice and wheat respectively. The effect of sewage on seedling growth was significant at various concentrations of sewage (F1= 81.65 & 78.17) as well as between different period of incubation (F2 = 30.04 & 26.36) for both rice and wheat respectively. Further, the difference in seedling vigour index also showed a similar trend of statistically significant with treatment at different concentrations (F1 = 55.63 & 48.94) as well as with different time period of incubation (F2 = 27.99. and 27.09) for both rice and wheat respectively. One way analysis of variance for total chlorophyll content between various concentrations of sewage showed a statistically significant result in both rice (F=270.11) and wheat (F = 1391. 84). Germination efficiency, seedling length, seedling vigour index and total chlorophyll content was found to be increased with increase in concentration of sewage upto 50% dilution after which it decreases. Thus, the sewage, after proper dilutions can be used as a potential source of water for seed germination and plant growth in agricultural practices.


16. MITIGATION MEASURES OF OIL PIPELINES IN CASE OF POWER FAILURE
by Ysair M. Fadul, Jing Gong & Fan Zhang
Abstract

This work is to investigate the operations at various upset conditions due to power failure of the 1506-km Heglig-Portsudan pipeline. A simulator, developed at the Department of Oil/Gas Storage & Transportation, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, can simulate the existing long-distance waxy crude pipeline, exactly as it is configured in the field. For non-Newtonian flow, the fluid rheological consistency, K (Pa.sn) and the flow behaviour index n are evaluated experimentally. Those two parameters were required to be introduced into the software to assess their effects on surge scenarios.

Some surge cases of loss of communication were reviewed. Consequently, it is of great important that the operator should review some practical mitigation measures as well as the capacity of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system to ensure that the system has resources to accommodate normal and abnormal operations.


17. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS IN RIVER USUMA SEDIMENTS AND STUDY OF FACTORS IMPACTING THE CONCENTRATION
by Ugwu A.I., Wakawa R.J., La’ah E.& Olotu A.
Abstract

Concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Fe, and Cr) were measured in sediment and two fish species, catfish-synodontis membranaceus and tilapia-oreochromis niloticus, from River Usuma, Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja Nigeria based on its economic standing. As an attempt to understand metal bioavailability and assess the potential impact on aquatic biota, a study of seasonal variations of heavy metal speciation of sediments was achieved. In comparison to some organizations tolerable values; most of the determined metals in the sediments, except Fe; were below guideline values. Availability of metals established were in the ranking: Cr < Fe < Pb < Zn < Cu < Mn. The potential hazardous impact of the determined metals and their validity were studied by evaluating correlations of metal levels in fish tissues and metal levels in fractions of sediment. High Cu and Fe levels were observed in liver tissue of both species, in agreement with higher total content of these metals in the sediment. Correlations among metals’ concentration levels in fishs’ tissues and sediments’ fractions were found.


18. USE OF CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE TO EVALUATE THE EFFECT OF CHROMIUM ON ACTIVITY PHOTOSYSTEM II AT THE ALGA SCENEDESMUS OBLIQUUS
by Zemri Khalida, Amar Youcef, Boutiba Zitouni, Zemri Mohammed & Popovic Radovan
Abstract

Industrial activities are significant sources of contamination of aquatic environments by heavy metals such as chromium. The latter occurs in two forms, trivalent or hexavalent, trivalent Cr is a trace element essential to the human body but its hexavalent form is toxic and very harmful to human health. Unfortunately, this form is found in abundance in industrial effluents and urban areas due to industrial activities, such as chromium metal and wood preservation 17.

In industrialized countries such as Quebec the use of Cr is much smaller because of its toxicity, but this will not lead to its total disappearance in the ecosystem. Maybe it will disappear from the air, soil and end up in the sea then in the fish we eat. While in developing countries its use is still present.

The photosynthetic apparatus of plants represents a target sensitive to these pollutants. In this project we will study the mechanism of toxicity of chromium on chlorophyll synthesis and electron transfer between photosystem II and photosystem I in the alga Scenedesmus obliquus. The yield and kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence were used to evaluate the photochemical alteration of photosystem II. Our results provide an indication of the degree of toxicity of chromium on the photosynthetic apparatus of algae and can also be used to develop biomarkers photosynthetic sensitive to the toxicity of heavy metals.


19. INTER COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ION CHAMBERS RESPONSE FOR LOW AND MEDIUM X RAY DOSIMETRY
by A.R. El-Sersy, N.E. Khaled & Eman S.A.
Abstract

In this work the low and medium X ray beam at National Institute for Standards (NIS) was characterized according to ISO 4037 and CCRI beam qualities. Different types of ion chambers response was studied for X ray dosimetry at those beam qualities. The used ion chambers are PTW farmer type 30013,semi flex 31003, flat 31343 and Markus 23343. X ray effective energy was calculated using the Cu half value layer (HVL). The character of energy dependency of different ion chambers were studied and correlated to the attenuation coefficient of the constituting material of each chamber. the attenuation coefficient for graphite, air and PMMA was calculated by winxom software. This work shows that thimble type chambers have a good response to wide range of X ray energies and slight energy dependence under 100 KV. Markus plane parallel chamber has also good response for wide range of X ray energies although it shows more energy dependence than that of thimble chambers.


20. ANALYSIS OF TECHNICAL LOSSES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM(NIGERIAN 330KV NETWORK AS A CASE STUDY)
by M.C. Anumaka
Abstract

In recent year, electric power demand has increased drastically due to superiority of electric energy to all other forms of energy and the expansion of power generation and  transmission has been severely limited sequel to limited resources, environmental restrictions and lack of privatization  as can be found in the developing  countries of the world like Nigeria, Togo, India,  etc.

No matter how the power system is designed, losses are unavoidable and must be modeled before accurate representation can be calculated. This paper focuses on the mathematical analysis of losses that occur in electric power system.  The Depezo loss formula, loss factor, use of system parameters for evaluating the system losses, the differential power loss and power flow methods are explicitly illustrated. The B-losses coefficient, which expresses the transmission losses as a function of outputs of all generation, is also explained.

21. INFLUENCE OF CORONA AND SKIN EFFECT ON THE NIGERIAN 330KV INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEM
by M.C. Anumaka
Abstract

The geographical location of Nigeria has made the country prone to natural and environmental hazards, which drastically affect the transmission network in the country. The Northern part of the country is hilly and mountainous, while the Southern part has equatorial climate with high humidity and rainfall. The consequence is ionization of air surrounding the conductor and the generation of skin effect. This paper reviews the adverse actions of corona loss and skin effect on the Nigerian 330KV transmission lines and proffers dependable solution to these problems.


22. ANALYSIS AND APPLICATIONS OF LAPLACE /FOURIER TRANSFORMATIONS IN ELECTRIC CIRCUIT
by M.C. Anumaka
Abstract

Solution of second order linear and ordinary, differential equations can be obtained by Laplace transformation, which converts differential equation into an algebraic equation with incorporation of the boundary conditions from the beginning. Also non-periodic function can be represented as an integral over a continuous range of frequencies. The concept of Laplace Transformation and Fourier Transformation play a vital role in diverse areas of science and technology such as electric analysis, communication engineering, control engineering, linear system, analysis, statistics, optics, quantum physics, solution of partial differential operation, etc. In solving problems relating to these fields, one usually encounters problems on time invariants, differential equations, time and frequency domains for non – periodic wave forms. This paper provides the reader with a solid foundation in the fundamentals of Laplace transform and Fourier transform; and gain an understanding of some of the very important and basic applications of these fundamentals to electric circuits and signal design and solution to related problems.    














Academic Research Publishing Agency Press