Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 11, Issue 3 (June, 2012)

To read and print the PDF files of the Journal Archive you will need to have Acrobat Reader 
 If you have any technical or content problems contact : publisher@arpapress.com

1. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD PARAMETER ESTIMATORS FOR THE TWO POPULATIONS GEV DISTRIBUTION
by Jose A. Raynal-Villasenor
Abstract

The  method  of  maximum  likelihood  for   estimating    the  parameters of the two populations general extreme value (TPGEV)  probability  distribution  function for the maxima is presented for the case of flood frequency analysis. The proposed methodology is compared with widely used models, namely: two component extreme value (TCEV), general extreme value (GEV) and Gumbel distributions. The TPGEV distribution behaved well for those selected sets of data in Northwestern Mexico and the results of this distribution proved to be better than the TCEV model, when there are two populations present in the flood sample of data. The paper contains several numerical examples of the application of the proposed methodology.


2. REAL IMPACT OF THE THERMAL INERTIA ON THE INTERNAL AMBIENT TEMPERATURE OF THE BUILDING IN THE HOT HUMID CLIMATE: SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN THE CITY OF DOUALA IN CAMEROON

by Alexis Kemajou & Léopold Mba

Abstract

Many studies, have demonstrated that the use of thermal inertia can usefully modify the thermophysical signature of buildings. However, their influences under hot-humid climate with local building materials in Africa have not been investigated in details. This work is based on the experimental and simulation of the thermal inertia of traditional buildings with wooden walls and modern buildings with hallow concrete block walls in hot humid climate. Before simulation, a finite difference method is applied to the equation of heat transfer and a thermal network of the building was realized. A calculation code developed with the matlab software was used for the simulation and a data acquisition apparatus is used for acquisition, stocking and treatment of data. Experimental study carried out during the month of may 2011 permitted us to validate a numerical model. Analyzing the experimental study shows: a zero time lag and temperature depreciation of 0.5°C between the external and the internal walls of the wooden buildings; a time lag of 04h15min and temperature depreciation of 1.5°C between the external and the internal walls of hallow concrete block buildings. The study reveals that traditional buildings with low thermal inertia like wooden assure better thermal comfort for non air-conditioned buildings in hot humid climate region.


3. MODELLING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SUBTHRESHOLD CURRENTS IN SCHOTTKY BARRIER CNTFETs FOR DIGITAL APPLICATIONS
by Roberto Marani & Anna Gina Perri
Abstract

The aim of this paper is to model and characterize the current voltage characteristics of Schottky Barrier (SB) Carbon NanoTube Field Effect Transistors (SB-CNTFETs) below and above threshold, in order to evaluate the noise margin and output voltage swing, whose values are necessary in the design of digital circuits.  


4. THE INNOVATION ACTIVITY IN EUROPE – SMALL COMPARATIVE STUDY
by Mircea-Iosif Rus
Abstract

The innovation activity is in a tight relation with the research-development activity and, often, it’s even more important. The innovation represents the basis of the economical progress and the application of its results can bring considerable benefits from a material, social and cultural point of view. Creating new work places in consequence of the technological development can underlie a better education and a social environment less affected by everything that’s noxious in society.  


5. ON RANKING OF ALTERNATIVES IN UNCERTAIN GROUP DECISION MAKING MODEL
by Chao Wang & Liang Lin
Abstract

The weighted geometric mean ordering vector and logarithmic least squares are proposed to aggregate information of decision makers to generate weight vector from uncertainty comparison matrices in uncertain group AHP model. Especially, when the judgment matrices are incomplete, the latter can be developed to derive priorities under the condition of minimal deviation. Some concepts in uncertainty theory are introduced and the uncertainty distributions are assumed to be linear. Two numerical examples are examined to show the applications of the proposed methods.


6. 3D-QSAR FOR a-GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF N-(PHENOXYALKYL)PHTHALIMIDE DERIVATIVES
by Samira Mbarki, Menana El Hallaoui & Khalid Dguigui
Abstract

Three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models were developed for 37 N-(phenoxyalkyl)phthalimide derivatives, inhibiting alpha-glucosidase. 3D-QSAR investigations, applied to find a correlation between the dierent physicochemical parameters of the compounds studied and their biological activity, were carried out using multiple linear regression (MLR) and neural network (NN). The results of MLR and NN showed good correlations (r values of 0.943 and 0.979, respectively) between the descriptors and alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory activity. To test the performance of this model we have used the cross validation method ( r= 0.866).


7. PHOTONIC STRUCTURES BASED ON SLOT WAVEGUIDES FOR NANOSENSORS: STATE OF THE ART AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
by Vittorio M. N. Passaro, Mario La Notte, Benedetto Troia, Lorenzo Passaquindici, Francesco De Leonardis & Giovanni Giannoccaro
Abstract

This review presents the state-of-the-art of Bio-Chemical nanosensors based on silicon Photonics. SOI (Silicon on Insulator) technology offers a number of guiding structures such as slot, rib, strip and silicon wire waveguides. We discuss many sensing principles employed in optical detection, such as absorbance, reflectance, fluorescence, chemiluminescence, bioluminescence and refractive index (RI) measurement. The integration of ultra high sensitive photonic waveguides in interferometer architectures (e.g. Mach Zehnder interferometer) and resonant architectures (e.g. ring resonator, Fabry Perot cavity), allow the detection of ultra low traces of chemical/biochemical analytes and gases. Sensing performance of photonic nanosensors based on silicon Photonics are very attractive, exhibiting ultra high sensitivity and low limit of detection (i.e. pg/mL, pmol/L). Intensive research in this field is motivated by broad applications of photonic sensors in healthcare, environmental monitoring, homeland security, food industry, pharmaceuticals, which require sensitive and rapid analytical tools.


8. GEOMETRIC MEAN FOR NEGATIVE AND ZERO VALUES
by Elsayed A. E. Habib
Abstract

A geometric mean tends to dampen the effect of very high values where it is a log-transformation of data. In this paper, the geometric mean for data that includes negative and zero values are derived. It turns up that the data could have one geometric mean, two geometric means or three geometric means. Consequently, the geometric mean for discrete distributions is obtained. The concept of geometric unbiased estimator is introduced and the interval estimation for the geometric mean is studied in terms of coverage probability. It is shown that the geometric mean is more efficient than the median in the estimation of the scale parameter of the log-logistic distribution.


9. DOES THE LOCAL INVESTMENT IS MORE EFFECTIVE THAN FOREIGN INVESTMENT?
by Shereen Yasseen Mohammad Alhamadani
Abstract

This study aims at estimating the production function for both kinds of the projects funded by local and foreign direct investment FDI sources in Jordan , Measuring the economic and social efficiency, and measuring the Average Total productivity (ATP) and partial productivity of factors used in these Investments.

The study concludes that the capital factor in foreign investment , has no impact on production . It was found also that the local investment depend on the labor in the generation of value-added, more its reliance on capital.

The results also show that the local investments , have achieved the highest average cost for the factors of labor and capital. The study concluded that local investments have achieved the lowest  total average productivity of production elements compared to foreign investments.

Finally, This study The study suggested the  necessity of formulating an incentives to encourage the local investment by Jordan Investment Board JIB.      

10. COMPETITIVENESS OF THE INDUSTRIES BASED ON THE PORTER'S DIAMOND MODEL: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY
by Ismail Bakan & Inci Fatma Dogan
Abstract

 

Michael Porter offered a model that allows examining why some states are more competitive and why some industries within states are more competitive than others are.  In this way, Porter’s diamond model of national competitiveness was detected as a model with which to assess the sources of competitive advantages of an industry in a particular country and it can help realise the competitive status of a nation in global competition. This model consists of four national determinants of competitive advantage: factor conditions, demand conditions, related and supporting industries, and firm’s strategy, structure and rivalry. The Porter’s theory is that these factors interact with each other to form conditions where innovation and competitiveness occurs.

As the purpose of this study is to find out the main factors which affect the competitiveness of the sectors, the well known model in the literature developed by Porter was used. By using Porters’ model Sun and his colleaguse (2010) provided a new model arguing that four variables of the diamond model (the factor conditions, the demand conditions, the related and supportive industries and the government) affect the competitiveness factor. In this article,  the competitiveness of basic industries in the city of Kahramanmaraş were investigated by using Porter’s Diamond model with the argument of Sun and his colleaguse. 

To achieve the aim of the research both primary and secondary data collection techniques were used. Parts and the items of the questionnaire were derived from related literature. The prepared questionnaire was applied in the main sectors of Kahramanmaraş. The collected data was analyzed and evaluated according to the Diamond model. So, we grabbed at an opportunity to evaluate the current situation according to the factors in the model and to detect areas that provide facilities to improve the competitiveness of the sectors.

11. FREDHOLM’S EQUATION AND FOURIER TRANSFORM ON DISCRETE ELECTROMAGNETIC SYSTEMS
by J.M. Velázquez-Arcos
Abstract

Fredholm's equation [1-4]and Fourier transform can be used to extend some important features of discrete acoustic systems to the electromagnetic domain that have an important role on obtaining great signals localization. Also the mathematical structure obtained of the related equationsis very near to some results on nuclear scattering theory like the existence of resonances. Because of their practical importance on applications to communications and other fields, we give a mathematical support and explain actual experimentalresults like super-localization of microwave signals and suggest that we can improve the usual methods to avoid the leak of information in a broadcasting process. The fundamental procedure is the use of the Fourier transform of Fredholm's time dependent equation and some techniques of operator methods that resemble the equivalent ones on quantum mechanics. Finally we propose the use of the obtainedequations for the Fourier‘s transform of the Green’s function associated to discrete systems, to describe the propagation of the electromagnetic signals for restrictive but very important applications. 


12. EFFECT OF NITROGEN DEFICIENCY IN THE BIODEGRADATION OF ALIPHATIC AND AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN PATAGONIAN CONTAMINATED SOIL
by Adrián J. Acuña, Oscar H. Pucci & Graciela N. Pucci
Abstract

The use of biological method to remediate soil with hydrocarbons as contaminants is possible and nitrogen is important for the process. Incorrect quantities of nitrogen in the soil result in a less efficient remediation process. The main object of this work was the study of the nitrogen effect in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation during 110 days. Five microcosms were designed, the treatments used were natural attenuation, aromatic hydrocarbon mineralization (both microcosms fertilized and unfertilized with nitrogen) and soil systems with diesel oil (both microcosm fertilized and unfertilized with nitrogen). At the beginning and end of the experiment, the hydrocarbons were determined by Soxhlet; nitrate, nitrite and ammonium were analyzed and CO2 was measured every week. The microbial count was carried out in media with and without nitrogen. The main results show that the presence of nitrogen in the soil favors the aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation and that the nitrogen deficiency favors the aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. In soil with nitrogen deficiency, the aromatic compound produced less nitrogen fixation and nitrification. The nitrogen deficiency produced a decrease in the mineralization, hydrocarbon elimination and biomass. However, remediation is possible because the nitrogen could be fixed due to the presence of nitrogen fixing microorganisms, which can fix the necessary nitrogen for the hydrocarbon remediation.


13. VORTEX STRUCTURES IN THE WAKE OF INCLINED CYLINDERS
by Kapil Varshney
Abstract

In this experimental study, vortex structures in the wake of inclined slender cylinders’ tip have been investigated. Thin cylinders of various diameters between 0.5 mm to 3.5 mm with large aspect ratios ( >> 1) have been exposed to low Reynolds number (Re) flow starting from Re = 150 to 2000. The cylinders were mounted at an angle of attack “a” which was varied from 300 to 900. Vortex shedding frequencies in conjunction with associated Strouhal numbers of the vortices behind the inclined cylinder have been studied which increased from 0.9 to 1.15 as the angle of attack was decreased from 600 to 300, and remained nearly constant to the change of Reynolds number. It was also found that these vortices were very stable at low Re<700 and vanished quickly at high Re>1000. In addition, the stability of these vortices is also dependent on the angle of attack. It was found that these vortices were very sharp and stable at a = 450 and started becoming unstable as the angle of attack increased or decreased from 450.


14. REMOVAL OF PHENOL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY ADSORPTION ON YEAST, SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE
by Mambo Moyo, Eusebia Mutare, Fidelis Chigondo & Benias C. Nyamunda
Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an alternative adsorbent for phenol removal from aqueous solution .The Saccharomyces cerevisiae was characterised by Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) and Fourier transform (FT-IR). Adsorption properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae towards phenol were systematically investigated, including pH effect, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial concentration. The adsorption of phenol decreased with increasing pH. The experimental data were analysed by Langmuir and Freundlich models in order to describe the equilibrium isotherms. Equilibrium data fitted well to the Langmuir model with correlating constant (R2) higher than 0.99. The study showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be used as a new and efficient adsorbent material for the removal of phenol from aqueous solution.


15. TL GLOW CURVE AND EFFECT OF ANNEALING ANALYSIS ON NATURAL BARITE COLLECTED FROM MANGAMPETA, INDIA
by V. Ramaswamy & I. Kalaiarasia
Abstract

The thermostimulated luminescence (TSL) glow curve characteristics of ten barite crystals of Mangampeta mines (Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh, India) were analysed. The natural thermoluminescence (NTL) measurements were carried out for all the samples and show three peaks at 80ºC, 120ºC and 295°C, when recorded with linear heating rate of 10°C/sec. The sample irradiated with a gamma dose of 100 Gy shows a new peak at 215°C with NTL observation, but the absence of 295°C glow peak. The annealed sample also shows the same trend. The sample was annealed in air at the temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1000°C, at an interval of 50°C, for 1 hr duration. Annealing treatment above 400°C increases the sensitivity of 215°C TSL peak but there is no change in other two peaks. On the other hand, annealing at 800°C caused a complete removal of low temperature peaks (80ºC and 120ºC). The enhancement in TSL sensitivity was found to depend on the annealing temperature. The optimum annealing temperature was fixed for getting maximum TL sensitivity.


16. COMPARISON OF ECG SIGNAL DENOISING ALGORITHMS IN EMD AND WAVELET DOMAINS
by Md. Ashfanoor Kabir & Celia Shahnaz
Abstract

This paper presents a detail analysis on the Electrocardiogram (ECG) denoising approaches based on noise reduction algorithms in Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domains. Compared to other denoising methods such as; filtering, independent and principle component analysis, neural networks, and adaptive filtering, EMD and wavelet domain denoising algorithms are found more effective in the reduction of noise from the ECG signal. Denoising methods in EMD domain depends on the number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) to be discarded or noise compensated and that in wavelet domain rely on the number of decomposition levels as well as selection of threshold value for each level. This paper provides the performance analyses of ECG signal denoising algorithms in EMD and wavelet domains thus comparing there effectiveness in reducing the noise. For analyses purpose, extensive simulations are carried out using the MIT-BIH database and the performances are evaluated in terms of standard metrics namely, SNR improvement in dB, Mean Square Error (MSE) and Percent Root Mean Square Difference (PRD). Results show that denoising schemes involving both EMD and wavelet domains are able to reduce noise from ECG signals more accurately and consistently in comparison to noise reduction algorithms in EMD or wavelet domain alone.


17. MEAN ABSOLUTE DEVIATION ABOUT MEDIAN AS A TOOL OF EXPLANATORY DATA ANALYSIS
by Elsayed A.E. Habib
Abstract

Themean absolute deviation about median (MAD median) is often regarded as a robust measure of the scale of a distribution. In this paper it is shownthat the MAD median is a very rich statistic and contains a lot of information not only about the scale but also about the shape of a distribution. MAD median is shown graphically usingstandardized empirical distribution function (SEDF chart). From this chart two concepts of skewness are introduced. One of them in terms of fat tail whilethe second in terms of tail length. Moreoverthe MAD median is used to compare and study the relationship between two variables through MAD median correlation coefficients and SEDF chart.


18. BAYESIAN AND NON BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF ERLANG DISTRIBUTION UNDER PROGRESSIVE CENSORING
by R.A. Bakoban
Abstract

Based on progressively Type-II censored samples, the maximum likelihood and Bayes estimators for the scale parameter, reliability and cumulative hazard functions are derived. The Bayes estimators are studied under symmetric (squared error) loss function and asymmetric (LINEX and general entropy) loss functions. Tow techniques are used for computing the Bayes estimates; standard Bayes and importance sampling methods. The performance of the estimates are compared by using the mean square error and the relative absolute bias through Monte Carlo simulation study.


19. EVALUATION OF INTERNAL EXPOSURE OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE STAFF USING IN-VITRO AND ORGAN DOSE CALCULATION METHODOLOGIES
by Nadia Helal
Abstract

The manipulation of a wide variety of unsealed sources in nuclear medicine results in a significant risk of internal exposure of the workers. 131I should be highlighted among the most frequently used radionuclides because of its large application for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. The increasing use of radionuclides for medical purposes creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Currently in Egypt , there are 200 nuclear medicine centers in operation but individual monitoring is still restricted to the control of external exposure. In a previous study by Rizk et al., [1], we have developed an in- vitro bioassay technique aimed to assessment of the intake due to inhalation of I-131 by workers in 3 Egyptian hospitals. Urine samples from 11 workers were collected after preparation and administration for I-131 and measured with HPGe detection system. In this study, given these bioassay data, we were able to estimate the average organ dose and committed effective doses of the staff working in the hospitals mentioned above over a period of 50 yrs. It would give us some confidence that the dose measure (as evaluated by MONDAL 3.0 software) might yield reasonable predictions for yet other workers (e.g., radiotherapies) and other dose routes. This paper describes the basic structure and validation of MONDAL 3.0 with a practical use of the software. It also shows if any of the workers need routine monitoring.


20. POWER QUALITY AND RELIABILITY ISSUES OF INDUCTION GENERATOR FOR WIND POWER PLANTS
by Jitendra Singh Shakya, R.K. Saket & Gurmit Singh
Abstract

Induction generators connected to the local grid may lead to severe power quality problems such as flicker, voltage dip etc. Further, unbalancing of the supply system may distort the supply voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC). The power quality and reliability issues of an induction generator for embedded generation have been analyzed in this paper. The behavior of the grid with connection/disconnection of the induction generator, variable wind speed operation, unbalancing, and harmonic injection have been simulated using MATLAB. The voltage dip transients, harmonics, voltage flicker, voltage unbalance of the supply system have been described to ascertain the impact of induction generator on reliability and power quality of the supply.


21. SOME BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE LEAVES AND FRUITS OF PERSEA AMERICANA
by Agomuo E.N., Amadi B.A. & Duru M.K.C.
Abstract

Vitamin, amino acid and haematological studies on leaves and fruits of Perseaamericana was carried out. Results obtained for vitamins, showed higher concentrations of niacin,ascorbic acid and tocopherol in the studied fruitsthan leaves. Aside serine and tyrosine, other amino acids investigated in both samples were appreciably high.Rats placed on leaves and fruits of the studied sample showed insignificant (p>0.05) effect in levels of RBC,Hb, and WBC when compared to those of the control. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, MCH, and MCHC were significantly affected (p<0.05) in test rats against those of the control rats. The study has shown that consumption of leaves or fruit of P.americana may induce a hypochromic or normocytic condition in the body.


22. THE PREVALENCE OF WORK-RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDER AMONG OCCUPATIONAL TAXICABS DRIVERS IN NIGERIA
by Onawumi A. Samuel & Lucas E. Babajide
Abstract

This work investigates the opinion of operators of Taxicabs in Nigerian on some ergonomic factors influencing their safety, comfort and performance while driving. Participatory ergonomic intervention approach (PEIA) and workspace analysis were used in the evaluation of ergonomic suitability of driver-vehicle system. 1406 drivers were sampled randomly in the study area and a minimum responds rate of 92% was achieved. Significant prevalence of WRMD reported among  respondents on  the four body segments are located at the neck(67%), right and left wrists(18%, 20%), upper, middle and lower back (29%, 29%, 30%), and buttock (19%) of the operators. The potentials of carrying out ergonomic investigation on taxicab operators through direct involvement of major stakeholders in the transportation business has been demonstrated and found very useful in the development of user friendly vehicle for Taxicab operator in Nigeria.














Academic Research Publishing Agency Press