Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 11, Issue 2 (May, 2012)

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1. COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS OF THREE-LEVEL CONVERTERS VERSUS TWO-LEVEL CONVERTERS FOR SHIP PROPULSION APPLICATIONS
by Hag Ahmed Y., Zhengming Zhao & Ting Lu
Abstract

In this paper, an overview of the techniques applied to AC electric propulsion field has been done. Actual study cases of electric ship propulsion schemes are considered. An impartial comparison between three-level converters versus two-level converter from the viewpoint of electric ship propulsion requirements has been done. Diode-clamped three-level converters using direct torque control (DTC) proved to be the most suitable convertors for electric-ship propulsion compared to two-level converters. An attempt to represent the behavior of a ship’s propulsion system comprising squirrel cage induction motor driven by a three-level converter has been conducted. The effectiveness of the system has also been verified through Psim 9.0.3 tools.


2. A NEW APPROACH TO VIDEO CODING BASED ON DISCRETE WAVELET CODING AND MOTION COMPENSATION

by Wissal Hassen, Jérôme Mbainaibeye, Hamid Amiri & Christian Olivier

Abstract

Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is a recent and powerful mathematical tool which has stimulated many developments in several scientific and technical fields, particularly in signal and image processing. Its multi-resolution properties are a major advantage. However, in video coding, motion management using DWT is a major challenge due to the DWT decomposition algorithms which does not preserve translation invariance. This means that, a translation of the original frame does not necessarily imply a translation of the corresponding wavelet coefficients. This is one of the reasons which justify, until now, the absence of the DWT-based video compression standard. However, in Discrete Cosine Transform based video compression standard such as MPEG.2, H.263 and H.264 the motion management in video sequences has reached the maturity. This paper introduces a new framework for color video coding that which can reduce the cost of storage and the bandwidth transmission of video file. The new method is a sub-band coding approach that employs Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and is based on a separate sign coding (SSC) from wavelet coefficients amplitude. Furthermore, it uses motion compensation technique (MC) to overcome the problem caused by the lack of invariance translation DWT which leads to false motion vectors. The video codec that we propose in this work is then called Separate Sign Coding with Motion Compensation (SSCMC).  An assessment of the proposed scheme was operated on a set of standard video sequences and the results obtained indicate that SSCMC outperforms H.264-AVC in terms of PSNR quality assessment and in terms of perceptual metric as structural similarity metrics (SSIM). Furthermore, the decoded video sequences visualized presents a competitive visual quality compared to H.264-AVC standard.


3. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD PARAMETERS, QUANTILES AND CONFIDENCE LIMITS ESTIMATORS FOR THE GEV DISTRIBUTION FOR THE MINIMA
by Jose A. Raynal-Villasenor
Abstract

The maximum likelihood (ML) estimators for the parameters, quantiles and confidence limits, using the general extreme value distribution for the minima (GEVM), is presented towards its application in low flow frequency analysis. The procedures to compute the parameters, design events (quantiles) for several return periods and their confidence limits are shown in the paper. Three measures of goodness of fit tests are contained in the paper to compare the proposed methodology with other models in competition. A full example of application is presented in the paper to show how easy is to apply the proposed methodology by using a common spreadsheets environment of Excel® (Excel is a trademark of Microsoft, Inc.).


4. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF THE METHOD OF MEAN AND DIFFERENCE POTENTIALS FOR MAGNETIC FORCE CALCULATION: A TECHNIQUE THAT COMBINES THE PRINCIPLES OF VIRTUAL WORK AND SUPERPOSITION
by Antônio Flavio Licarião Nogueira
Abstract

The paper addresses a performance analysis of an alternative method for the calculation of global forces. The mean and difference potentials technique is physically related to the virtual work principle, and relies on a reformulation of the computation sequence to evaluate the system’s stored energy difference. The technique is the result of exploiting superposition in magnetically linear systems, and can be applied to any sequence of boundary-value problems which differ only in the placement of their excitations. The method has been successfully applied to solve interior problems with translational symmetry. The present work investigates its performance when used to solve a well known academic force calculation problem. The forces acting on an iron rail at various positions relative to a pair of busbars carrying equal and opposite currents are obtained using four different techniques. The force-displacement characteristic that represents the benchmark for computed forces is built from computationally equivalent force estimates produced by the methods of weighted Maxwell stress tensor and Lorentz equation. Computed forces by the method of mean and difference potentials and classical virtual work are compared. Numerical results show that magnetic saturation adversely affects the performance of the mean and difference method. However, along the range of magnetically linear field problems, the force estimates produced by the mean and difference potentials method match the benchmarks very closely, with an average per cent error of 1.3%, against 3.8% for the classical virtual work method.


5. CALIBRATION OF A FE MODEL OF MASONRY WALL RETROFIT BY CFRP (CARBON FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER)
by Mahmood Chavoshan, Mansour Ghalehnovi & Hamid Reza Naseri
Abstract

 

The recent earthquake in different countries of the world, such as those in Iran (2003), Algeria (2003), India (2001), Turkey (1999) and Vrancea (1997) have shown, particularly masonry walls were damaged. Thus, masonry walls are the most vulnerable elements of buildings when subjected to earthquake loading. Therefore, it is necessary to find practical solutions by study the behavior of these walls, first without and then with retrofitting under monotonic and/or cyclic seismic loading. Presently, many methods are successfully used as reinforcement in masonry retrofitting, such as steelmesh reinforced cement mortar layer, RC tie columns and beams, etc. These traditional methods generally need much time and construction cost, so engineers are trying to find some new methods and materials to solve these problems. By increasing the use of FRP composites in civil engineering, they seem highly essential to be studied.

The purpose of the study is seismic behavior of URM wall and influence of geometric characteristics and   arrangement of CFRP laminates on strengthening of masonry walls. The unreinforced and reinforced walls with externally bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets under cyclic loading have been modeled using the FE software ABAQUS and validated with the experimental data. The results for the different strengthening systems are compared. These comparisons demonstrated the major effectiveness of FRP layers in cross position to increasing the shear performance of URM walls in term of load capacity. four walls have been modeled.


6. BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEMS FOR SECOND ORDER DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS WITH A SPECTRAL PARAMETER IN THE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
by Aytekin Eryilmaz & Bilender P. Allahverdiev
Abstract

This paper is concern with the boundary-value problem in the Hilbert space generated by an infinite Jacobi matrix with a spectral parameter in the boundary condition. We proved theorems on the completeness of the system of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of operator generated by boundary value problem.


7. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN AIR-CONDITIONED BUILDINGS OF THE TROPICAL HUMID CLIMATE
by Alexis Kemajou, Leopold Mba & Gaël Pako Mbou
Abstract

Energy monitoring was done for 42 air-conditioned commercial buildings.  They present high electrical consumption rates: 302KWh.m2 per year. This is due to a poor thermal design of their envelopes, their exploitation and a poor energy efficiency of equipments due to a lack of standards. Presently, it is possible to save about 12.3%of the national electrical energy consumption ‘‘medium voltage’’, representing 23% of the energy consumption of air-conditioned commercial buildings, if we apply the recommended energy savings requirements. In the case of new buildings, it is vital to improve their thermal design, to select efficient energy equipments so as to avoid the actual waste of energy. It will then be necessary to strengthen our knowledge of the dynamicthermal behaviour of buildings in the tropical humid zones and also to contribute by establishing some energy standards and thermal oriented regulations for constructions. 


8. APPLIED GEO-INFORMATICS FOR FLOOD MANAGEMENT
by George G. van der Meulen
Abstract

A major response to disasters, flood disasters in particular, is the production and availability of flood (hazard/risk) maps. Flood maps are static, therefore it would be better, to concentrate and emphasize upon interactive, web accessible systems for professionals and general public as well. Computers, web technology, internet capacity and speed are no  longer a bottleneck to to providing an interactive opportunity and once aware of that opportunity, a strong demand for more comprehensive and more complex flood management systems come to the fore. However, as a result, new constraints appear. During the last 20 years, substantial progress has been made in the geo-informatics development of flood disaster systems, from prototyping efforts to comprehensive, integrated systems. Achievements made concerned prototyping of concept modeling for understanding and evaluation reasons unto systems to be applied to flood risk areas through most phases of the safety cycle in use with flood disaster decision makers and fighters. The purpose of this paper concerns to explain these achievements, in historical order, underlining their progress, increasing complexity and comprehensiveness, and paying attention for a final opportunity of an interactive and integrative system approach. For that reason, an overview is given, followed by a discussion about the preferable follow-ups, from scientific and professional demand points of view.


9. EVALUATION OF THE USEFULNESS OF TESTING FOR P53 MUTATION IN SOME HUMAN CANCERS
by Nadia Helal, Rizk Abdel Moneim & Marwa Yassein
Abstract

The effectiveness of cancer radiotherapy is compromised by the small proportion of patients who sustain severe normal tissue damage after standard radiotherapy treatments. Predictive tests are required to identify these highly radiosensitive cases and screening for mutations in genes could be used as a predictive test.

Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene P53 are associated with a wide range of different cancers and may have prognostic and thera­peutic implications. Methods for rapid and sensitive detection of mutations in this gene are therefore required. Some gene tests are used to clarify a diagnosis and direct a physician toward appropriate treatments, while others allow families to avoid having children with devastating diseases or identify people at high risk for conditions that may be preventable. One type of DNA testing involves comparing the sequence of DNA bases in a patient's gene to a normal version of the gene.

In this work, we propose a gene testing method, for this sake, we have 1) constructed a program using Matlab for screening P53-gene and to estimate the percentage of the four nuclides (A, G, C and T) along the gene sequence. 2) The constructed program has been applied for wild-type P53 (reference) and nine different cancers (test) for about 500 patients (the data has been taken from the IARC database, http://www.iarc.fr). 3) We evaluate the efficiency of the constructed program and compare it to DNA-counter software for mutation detection in nine different cancers and a high correlation has been obtained. We conclude that the constructed program is a robust, rapid, and comprehensive screening tool for sequence alterations in tumors. It allows one to make comparison between different sequences of any gene. It is believed that this study of P53 mutation may provide useful information for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. Estimating the percentage of mutations within cancer patients may also be of value in predicting adverse reactions to radiotherapy.


10. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF P53 GENE BASED ON MATLAB CODE
by Nadia Helal, Rizk Abdel Moneim & Marwa Yassein
Abstract

Accurate prognosis of cancer can spare a significant number of cancer patients from receiving unnecessary radiotherapy/chemotherapy and its related expensive medical coasts. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential value of gene expression signatures in assessing the risk of post-surgical disease recurrence. However, these studies all attempt to develop genetic marker-based prognostic systems to replace the existing clinical criteria, while ignoring the rich information contained in established clinical markers. Given the complexity of cancer prognosis, a more practical strategy would be to utilize both clinical and genetic marker information that may be complementary.

In this study, we introduce 2D graphical representation method based on the neighboring dual nucleotides of p53 gene. The introduced graph is applied to characterize and compare coding sequences of normal p53 gene and 10 different cancers. For this purpose, we have firstly, construct a model using Matlab program. Secondly, the constructed model is further validated by applying for the IARC library of p53 mutation database http://www.iarc.fr . The cancers under considerations are: ovary, skin, breast, bladder, esophagus, gastric, head& neck, leukemia, brain and lung. The obtained 2D graph may act as a "marker" that may aid in the correct initial staging diagnosis for cancers, such as mutations within the p53 gene.  

11. NUMERICAL STUDY OF SPHERICAL INDENTATION IN SUPERFICIAL COATINGS
by Avelino Manuel da Silva Dias
Abstract

The aim of this work was to simulate the indentation testing behaviour of a rigid ball indenter on a coating/substrate system by the finite element method. Indentation testing has been used for a long time to determinate the superficial hardness of different materials. Nowadays, a number of researchers have developed new techniques based on this testing to evaluate different mechanical properties of materials including fracture toughness and Young modulus. However, there are still limitations to analyze the coating/substrate system behaviour during indentation testing. To help to reduce those limitations, the present work uses the finite element technique to simulate stress and strain fields during the indentation cycle. A commercial finite element code which has been considered as a promising tool for non linear problems and fracture process was used. The numerical results for the stress and strain fields focused mainly in the indenter contact region and for interface between coating and substrate were calculated during the testing cycle. Furthermore, through the use of the maximum principal stress criterion, details of the failure mechanism that occurs on coating system were evaluated.


12. EVALUATION OF HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE INDICATORS USING RANKING FUZZY NUMBER
by Lazim Abdullah & Nur Jamalina Jamal
Abstract

Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is one of the significant current discussions in health fraternity. HRQoL encompasses multidimensional indicators and serves the purpose of evaluating health quality among patients or people with health-related problems. It evaluates patients' perceptions of the impact of disease and treatment on their indicators such as physical, psychological, social function and well being. However there is no clear suggestion of which indicators contributed more than other. Various approaches have been proposed in evaluating of HRQoL and most cases have relied heavily on statistical techniques. The arbitrary nature of HRQoL paves the way for an alternative perspective in its evaluation approaches.  This paper proposes a ranking of HRQoL indicators using a method of ranking fuzzy numbers. One hundred and fifty elderly respondents from Terengganu State of Malaysia were sampled to elicit information regarding their health related status over the eight indicators using a questionnaire. Respondents were asked to rate their regularity of experiencing health-related problems in a Likert-type scale of five.  Data of the eight indicators were normalized into triangular fuzzy numbers. The method for ranking of triangular fuzzy numbers based on the left and the right spreads at some r-levels of triangular fuzzy numbers is employed.  Data were computed using a computer algebra system to obtain magnitude for each indicator.  It is shown that the indicator of emotion has recorded the lowest problematic level while the indicator of bodily pain recorded the highest problematic level experienced by elderly people. The ranking signifies the impact of the indicators to health quality specifically among elderly people.


13. THERMAL EFFECTS FOR SHAFT–PRE-STRESS ON ROTOR DYNAMIC SYSTEM
by Hisham Al-Khazali & Mohamad Askari
Abstract

This Paper outlines study behaviour of rotating shaft with high speed under thermal effects. The method of obtaining the frequency response functions of a rotor system with study whirl effect in this revision the raw data obtained from the experimental results (using Smart Office program) are curve-fitted by theoretical data regenerated from some of the experimental data and simulating it using finite element (ANSYS 12). (FE) models using the Eigen analysis capability were used to simulate the vibration. The results were compared with experimental data show analysis data with acceptable accuracy and performance.

The rotating effect causes un-symmetry in the system matrices, resulting in complexity in decoupling the mathematical models of the system for the purpose of modal analysis. Different method is therefore required, which can handle general system matrices rather than symmetrical matrices, which is normal for passive structures. Mathematical model of the system from the test data can be assembled. The frequency response functions are extracted, Campbell diagram are draw and simulated. (FE) is used to carry out such as simulation since it has good capability for Eigen analysis and also good graphical facility.

14. STACK VENTILATION STRATEGIES IN ARCHITECTURAL CONTEXT: A BRIEF REVIEW OF HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT, CURRENT TRENDS AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES
by Mazran Ismail & Abdul Malek Abdul Rahman
Abstract

Man has used the stack ventilation strategy for centuries to ensure comfortable indoor environment in their buildings. Today, in the conditions of the denser built environment and the need for deep-plan buildings seems inevitable, the application of stack ventilation strategy has become more important, especially when the natural cross ventilation has limited functions. However, realizing the fact that this strategy is very dependent on indoor-outdoor temperature differential, many innovative elements, devices and strategies based on this ventilation concept have been developed to overcome the weaknesses of this strategy, particularly in terms of its reliability and applicability in the modern building. Therefore, concerning about the potential and current limitations of this ventilation strategy, this paper presents a brief overview on various aspects of stack ventilation, covering its historical development, recent innovation and application trends as well as future possibilities for its further development.


15. DISSIPATIVE ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS-TIME SYSTEMS WITH TWO ADDITIVE TIME-VARYING DELAYS
by Wrastawa Ridwan & Riyanto T. Bambang
Abstract

This paper presents an application of dissipative concept for stability analysis of continuous-time system with two additive time-varying delays in the state. Our attention is focused on analysis of whether the continuous-time system with two additive time-varying delays in the state is asymptotically stable and dissipative. By exploiting Lyapunov-Krasovski functional and introducing free weighting matrix variables, the stability condition is derived by using linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques.


16. P53 MUTATIONS AS FINGERPRINTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CARCINOGENS
by Nadia Helal, Rizk Abdel Moneim & Marwa Yassein
Abstract

Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene P53 are associated with a wide range of different cancers. Most mutation detected was a single nucleotide mismatch (single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)) that occurred in the P53-gene coding region. P53 mutations indicate that the sites and features of DNA base changes differ among the various human tumor types and depend on carcinogen type. The molecular epidemiology of p53 mutations allows the possibility of correlating particular mutations with specific carcinogens and establishing one step in the causal pathway between exposure to carcinogens and the development of cancer. Moreover, these carcinogens leave molecular fingerprints on the p53 gene.

In this work, we have constructed a program using Matlab for screening and aligning P53-gene. This may help in detecting the alterations and estimate the site of mutation along the gene sequence. The constructed program has been applied for wild-type P53-gene (reference) and P53-gene for patients who have cancer treated with radio/ chemotherapy or exposed to different carcinogens (test). We conclude that the constructed program may consider as a comprehensive screening tool for sequence alterations in tumors. It allows one to make comparison between different sequences of any gene and detect the sites of mutations. The systematic study of these mutations may help to find additional links between suspected carcinogens and different human cancers; it may also provide valuable information on the relationship between carcinogen exposure and DNA damage in cancer-related genes.


17. ACHIEVING THE BEST MIXTURE PLANE FOR SELF COMPACT CONCRETE
by Amir Baniasadi Moghdam, Abdolhamid Bahrpeyma & Mohammad Givehchi
Abstract

Self compact concrete is a genuine product of concrete technology. that is used in Europe ,America, japan for many years and it is usage among engineers is increasing. SCC is a new generation of concrete that doesn't need a vibrator and is compacted by it is own weight we can use this concrete in areas with Big number of bars that concrete cannot be vibrated with a vibrator and so that we could have a concrete with high quality.

Because mixture plane of this type is money and time consuming so it hasn't been became popular in Iran. Our goal is to achieve a good mixture plane of SCC with high compacting resistance by using local materials. In this research we test 210 mixture plane on new concrete. Among these experiments 50 achieved Standards of SCC. We achieved approximate relations and equations among experiments results and also we found the best. Optimum mixture plane by testing compaction experiment on 14,28 days old samples.


18. THE ROLE OF MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM IN MARKETING DECISION-MAKING IN JORDANIAN SHAREHOLDING MEDICINES PRODUCTION COMPANIES
by Sultan 'Mohammadsaid' Sultan Freihat
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to reveal the relationship between the major components of marketing information system, and the decision-making in Jordanian shareholding medicines production companies. It also aimed at introducing the concept, elements, and components of marketing information system.

The researcher adopted two types of data: the data gleaned from books, net, studies and previous research, while the second was a field study included: the design and distribution of a questionnaire to collect data from managers and staff concerned about the variables of the study. Questionnaires have been distributed to (56) of marketing managers and marketing information system staff working in the companies, and (48) was recovered with a percentage of (86%). The questionnaire consisted of sets of questions, included: the relationship between the main components of marketing information system and decision making in companies mentioned. Reliability test was conducted (Cronbach's Alpha) to determine the reliability of the data collection tool (questionnaire). The reliability test ratio of both the independent and dependent variables were (87%).The population of the study were (7) Jordanian shareholding medicines production companies. The unit of analysis in this study was manager, and staff, and data were collected from: marketing managers, and marketing information system staff working in each of the seventh companies. The main results of the study were as follows:

1. There is a statistically significant relation between each of the following marketing information system components: (internal records, marketing research, marketing intelligence)and decision-making.

2. There is a tendency in Jordanian shareholding medicines producing companies to appoint persons who has: Universities qualifications, suitable scientific specialization, and high years of experience, for their making information system jobs.

3.  Some of the companies included in the study haven't a specialized unit responsible for the functions of marketing information system in their marketing departments.


19. ANALYSIS OF LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES OF HOUSEHOLD'S HEADS IN ODE-OMI KINGDOM, OGUN-WATER SIDE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA
by Olawuyi S.O. & Rahji M.A.Y.
Abstract

This study examined the livelihood strategies of households’ heads in Ode omi kingdom of Ogun- water side Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was administered to selected households’ heads through In-depth Interview, Focus Group Discussions and Participatory Rural Appraisal. A multistage sampling technique was used to select a total of 100 households’ heads that were used for this study. The study area is faced with a lot of problems, having direct effect on the residents’ livelihood activities and income; these problems range from lack of infrastructural facilities and loss of land and landed properties to mention a few as a result of expropriation. And, they have been living with these for years, thereby limiting the growth and development of the area and people within. The result revealed that majority of the respondents (71%) engage in fishing and fishing related activities as their main occupation. A regression analysis carried out shows that, 61.9% level of variation in the Income of households’ heads is due to the changes in the specified explanatory variables, as given by the co-efficient of multiple determinations (R2); hence, these variables form the prominent factors observed to have caused and affected the Income. Age, household size and expenditure are found to be positively significant on Income but that of expenditure on the contrary negates the a-priori expectation. This study thus concludes that the role of assets such as social capital, land, property, cash, savings and labour is central in determining the outcomes of livelihood activities as measured by income and well-being. Therefore, adequate compensation, livelihood restoration and replacement are vital in a case of expropriation by government so that the affected households will not be subjected to psychological and emotional trauma.


20. A-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PERSEA AMERICANA LEAF, FRUIT AND SEED
by Arukwe U., Amadi B.A., Duru M.K.C., Agomuo E.N., Adindu E. A., Odika P.C., Lele K.C., Egejuru L., & Anudike J.
Abstract

The chemical composition of P. americanaleaf, fruit and seed was investigated.  The results obtained showed that the investigated samples contain phytochemicals such as phenols, saponins, and flavonoids in appreciable quantities. Proximate content revealed that the fruit of P.americana contains more of fat and energy; seed, more of fat, protein and energy and the leaf, more of protein, fibre, and ash. Mineral contents of the investigated samples followed the order of leaf>fruit>seed in terms of concentration. These chemical compositions of the investigated samples may be behind their medicinal values in phytomedicine.














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