Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 11, Issue 1 (April, 2012)

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1. LOCALIZATION OF COMPACT INVARIANT SETS OF A 4D SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION IN CHAOS
by Zhinan Wu, Fuchen Zhang & Xiaowu Li
Abstract

We combine the globally exponentially attractive set with the iterative theory to discuss the boundedness of a Lorenz-Stenflo chaotic system. Firstly, We get a exponentially attractive set for this system. Then, we use iterative theory to get a  refined boundedness for this system. Finally, the boundedness for y, z is applied to chaos synchronization. Numerical simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. 


2. IMPACTS OF MODEL FIDELITY ON SIMULATED GAMMA SPECTRA IN ESTIMATING NUCLEAR SAFEGUARDS SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE

by Tom Burr & Michael S. Hamada

Abstract

Process monitoring (PM) is increasingly important in nuclear safeguards as a supplement to mass-balance based nuclear materials accounting (NMA). The main goal for using PM in addition to NMA is to improve the ability to detect off-normal plant operation, which could indicate intent to divert special nuclear material. This paper describes possible new roles for PM in general and for the multi-isotope PM (MIPM) in as a specific example. Potential impacts of computer model bias are then illustrated in the context of using the MIPM in an overall safeguards system that includes PM and NMA.  Our focus is on safeguards for Pu at aqueous reprocessing plants where in the particular case of solution monitoring, PM currently tracks frequent measurements of bulk solution mass and volume.


3. ¿LAW OF EINSTEIN´S THERMAL CAPACITY FOR SCHWARZSCHILD´S BLACK HOLE ?
by Manuel Malaver
Abstract

In this paper we obtain an analytic expression for the thermal capacity of the Schwarzschild´s black hole. We have considered a microscopic model of a stretched horizon based on the ideas of Mäkelä (2011) . It is predicted in this investigation the behavior of the thermal capacity of Schwarzschild´s black hole in the limit of high and low temperature. We found that this behavior is similar to the observer one in the model of Einstein for solid crystals.


4. ISOTROPY OF REFRACTORY METALS AND PRECIOUS METALS
by Fae`q A. A. Radwan
Abstract

The norm of elastic constant tensor and the norms of the irreducible parts of the elastic constants of refractory metals (Molybdenum, Mo, Tantalum, Ta, and Tungsten, W) and precious metals (Gold, Au, Platinum, Pt, and Silver, Ag) are calculated. The relation of the scalar parts norm and the other parts norms and the anisotropy of the refractory metals and precious metals are presented. The norm ratios are used to study anisotropy of the refractory metals and precious metals and the relationship of their structural properties and other properties with their anisotropy are given.  


5. COMPUTER APPLICATION ON WELL TEST MATHEMATICAL MODEL COMPUTATION OF HOMOGENOUS AND MULTIPLE-BOUNDED RESERVOIRS
by Elradi Abass & Cheng Lin Song
Abstract

This paper presents a reasonable computer application solution of the modern well test analysis mathematical model, concerning the mathematical model and its analytical solution. The works of this paper are conducted to develop a computer program package designed in VISUAL BASIC6, and the utility of this program is to follow the procedure for solving well test mathematical model and establishing the most widely known as theoretical type curves. The appropriate calculations that are provided by the program, are that for each reservoir boundaries' situation the program has an ability to establish multi-type curve for a variety of well and reservoir parameters. Here it is worth mentioning that many publications have no clearly integrated explanation of the mathematical background of establishing well test type curves. Therefore the paper would be considered as a technical guide to what has been done so far regarding the current Computer Aided Application of modern well test theory for the condition of homogeneous and multiple linear boundaries reservoir.


6. TWO-STAGE DYNAMIC MULTI-PERIOD PORTFOLIO OPTIMIZATIONS
by Shu-Ing Liu
Abstract

This paper extends the traditional Markowitz’s mean-variance optimization to a two-stage dynamic multi-period portfolio optimization. The underlying assets time series data are supposed to follow a discrete time triangular cointegrated vector model, and in addition random quadratic transaction costs are taken into consideration. A two-stage dynamic multi-period approach is proposed, and the optimal solution under the discussed model is analytically derived. Also, comparisons between a standard one-stage static approach and some two-stage approaches will be numerically examined under constructed data. The results indicate that the proposed two-stage dynamic method performs quite efficiently, and that higher net returns per risk can be expected.


7. REMOVAL OF 17ß-ESTRADIOL BY NYLON FILTER MEMBRANE: ADSORPTION KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS
by Min Liu, Edward P.C. Lai & Yu Yang
Abstract

The natural estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) is one of the known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that have been entering water systems via human and animal waste products.  The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of nylon membranes used in a filter for the removal of 17b-estradiol (E2) in water were studied. Experimental results showed that a linear adsorption isotherm was applicable over the E2 concentration range from 0.5 mg L-1 to 3.0 mg L-1. The adsorption obeyed pseudo-first-order kinetics and diffusion-limited model. The rate of adsorption was fast, as controlled by surface adsorption rather than diffusive transport into surface sites. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard change in free energy, enthalpy and entropy indicated that adsorption of E2 on a nylon membrane was exothermic. 


8. SIMULATION OF CNTFET DIGITAL CIRCUITS: A VERILOG-A IMPLEMENTATION
by Roberto Marani & Anna Gina Perri
Abstract

A Verilog-A compact model for Carbon NanoTube Field Effect Transistors (CNTFETs) has been implemented to study basic digital circuits. The model, based on the hypothesis of fully ballistic transport in a mesoscopic system between two non-reflective contacts, has been structured to allow an easy implementation in Verilog-A language and has been compared with experimental data, showing a good agreement between simulation and experimental results, particularly in the saturation region, where the relative error is practically negligible.  Moreover the Verilog-A model has been  utilized to design a digital NOT gate with complementary technology and a NAND gate, in which the quantum capacitance dependence on polarization voltages has been considered.


9. PENSION SYSTEM IN ALBANIA
by Jaroslaw Poteraj
Abstract

The author’s research goal was to present historical and current solutions in Albania’s pension system so as to spotbetween them any that could be used for international comparisons. The article on Albanian pension systems is presented in the following order: 1. Introduction, 2. General information about the country, 3. The historical development of the pension system, 4. Its present state, and 5. Challenges and anticipated changes to the system. The actions taken in 1993 in Albania in order to modernizethe country’s pension system made led to a system that is very much based on a public tier working on the pay-as-you-go principle. The voluntary savings for pensions in the third tier are possible, but have little importance in Albania.Any solutions in the scope of the second, capital tier of the pension system stillremain to be guessed. Comparing the Albania’s pension system to those of other countries, the special treatment of women that have given birth to six or more children is worth noticing.


10. THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON GAS EMISSIONS
by Charalampos Arapatsakos, Anastasios Karkanis & Stella Maria Strofylla
Abstract

Air pollution is a major problem for public health in most cities of the developing world. Epidemiological studies show that air pollution in developing countries is the reason for ten thousands and more deaths and billions of money in medical costs and lost productivity each year too. These loses are connected to poorer quality of life and overload considerably people in all sectors of society. This work examines the exhaust gas temperature influence in CO2, CO, HC emissions in a four-stroke gasoline engine. The experiments have shown that the reduction of exhaust gas temperature has as a result the reduction of CO2, CO, HC. The engine used as fuel gasoline and gasoline-methanol mixtures.


11. THREE STAGE DISCRTETE TIME EXTENDED KALMAN FILTER SCHEME FOR MICRO AIR VEHICLES
by Sadia Riaz & Ali Usman
Abstract

Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) is one of the most interesting area of application of robotics. These are miniaturized Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), usually defined to be less than fifteen centimeters (six inches) in length and below the weight of hundred grams which include twenty grams of payload as well to apply Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) techniques for the navigation of Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) is an extremely challenging area. This paper presents an approach of designing an INS/GPS based navigation system using three stage discrete time Extended Kalman Filter which is a very strong mathematical tool, is used in this paper for the estimation of states of the Micro Air Vehicles (MAV). Kalman Filter is a set of mathematical equations, which provides a computational mean for estimation of the states of a process. This paper shows the mathematical work carried out for applying the three stage discrete time Extended Kalman Filter scheme.


12. SOME REMARKS ON THE APPLICATION OF THE CECP2 AND BS8002 METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF ANCHORED SHEET PILE WALLS
by Shodolapo Oluyemi Franklin & Abiodun Luqman Olopade
Abstract

The main aim of the present study was to assess the suitability and consistency of the CECP2 and BS8002 codes when used for the analysis and design of anchored sheet pile walls in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. It was found that in the case of cohesionless soils the conventional procedures based on the CECP2 code yielded similar embedment depths although factors of safety as well as forces in the anchor rod differ markedly. In contrast the limit state design approach of BS8002 gave a slightly greater embedment depth but lower factor of safety. Its results suggest that in practice there is an optimum embedment depth in regard to cohesionless soils. With reference to cohesive soils the conventional procedures based on CECP2 gave greatly differing embedment depths depending on whether the factor of safety is applied to the computed depth or to the cohesion term. In addition the factors of safety obtained differed significantly. The BS8002 limit state approach assuming the worst credible loading gave embedment depth approximately intermediate between the values obtained using the conventional procedures of CECP2. For both cohesionless and cohesive soils the BS8002 approach appears consistent because greater embedment depths generally lead to higher factors of safety, but a corresponding decrease in the anchor rod forces.


13. A NOTE ON THE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF CANTILEVER RETAINING WALLS USING THE CECP2 AND BS8002 METHODS
by Shodolapo Oluyemi Franklin & Abiodun Luqman Olopade
Abstract

The aim of the present study was to compare and contrast the results of the conventional CECP2 method and its variants with the limit state design approach of BS8002 when applied to a reinforced concrete cantilever retaining wall. It was found that in all cases stability against sliding and overturning was achieved. However using the CECP2 code in conjunction with safety factors recommended by BS8110, stability against sliding was achieved only with the use of a heel beam. In contrast with the BS8002 approach which utilizes the most onerous loading condition, there was no need for a heel beam. With respect to bearing pressure analysis, use of the CECP2 method resulted in maximum bearing pressures being below the allowable bearing value. In contrast with BS8002, maximum bearing pressures were less than the allowable only when the design angle of shearing resistance ϕ was high, a situation corresponding to angular soil particles. It was concluded that only under such a condition would BS8002 produce a more economical design.


14. A STUDY ON EFFECT OF DRAG & TORQUE ON BUCKLING OF DRILLSTRING IN HORIZONTAL WELLS
by Yousif E. A. Bagadi, Abdelwahab M. Fadol & Gao Deli
Abstract

Tubular Buckling is defined as lost in the original rectilinear status due to axial compression load. Tubular buckled in a horizontal section of oil or gas wells may cause problems such as: Casing wear/failure, Eliminates the transmission of axial load to the Bit, Drillpipe fatigue, Bit direction change, Severe drag and torque, Tubing seal failure, Connection failure.

According to what mentioned above, it would be necessary to make an investigation on the effect of drag and/or torque on buckling of tubular inside horizontal wellbore (the so-called torque-drag-buckling relationship), the study depends mainly on conducting experimental tests, and utilize the results to predict the tubular behavior under different circumstances of torque and drag, also these results were compared and verified with a finite element model and some of theoretical published approaches.

Results obtained from this study indicates that torsion load had a little effect on buckling of tubular in horizontal section, this effect increase with decrease in pipe stiffness. Helical buckling tends to increase highly drag force, and thus eliminates transmission of axial load to the bit. Drag force tend to increase with torsion load as a result drag increase helical buckling. For prediction of helical buckling Lubinski and Woods, Gao Deli and Chen et. al provided a good agreement with one-end hinge state, and Dellinger equation is the best for two-end hinge case.

Complex variable methods are used to derive the Goursat functions for the first and second fundamental problems of an infinite plate with a curvilinear hole C. The hole is mapped in the domain inside a unit circle by means of the rational mapping function. Many special cases are discussed and established of these functions .Also, many applications and examples are considered. Moreover the components of stress , in each application , are computed.


15. FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS OF AN INFINITE PLATE WITH A HOLE CONFORMALLY MAPPED INSIDE THE UNIT CIRCLE
by M.A. Abdou & F.S. Bayones
Abstract

Complex variable methods are used to derive the Goursat functions for the first and second fundamental problems of an infinite plate with a curvilinear hole C. The hole is mapped in the domain inside a unit circle by means of the rational mapping function. Many special cases are discussed and established of these functions .Also, many applications and examples are considered. Moreover the components of stress , in each application , are computed.


16. ICT FOR BUSINESS SERVICES: THE CASE OF UGANDAN MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS
by Joseph Kizito Bada
Abstract

In this research we investigated the extent to which Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) use ICT to deliver business services and train staff. We performed literature review on ICT for business service delivery and staff skills development in MFIs.  We next investigated the actual ICT usage by MFIs in Uganda with focus on ICT literacy, business applications, and planning. We used questionnaires to gather data from Microfinance institutions covering three districts of Uganda. The data collected from the survey was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The analysis results indicate that the usage of ICT in microfinance business is still low. The usage is fair in business process automation but none in professional skills enhancement through e-learning. Based on our findings from this research we conclude that there is need to experiment e-learning for professional skills development in Ugandan microfinance institutions. Furthermore, research is needed to test the level of computer technology acceptance in microfinance business.


17. PATIENT ORGANS DOSE CALCULATIONS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE
by Nadia Helal
Abstract

Radionuclides are used in nuclear medicine in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Two types of risk are identified following the administration of a radiopharmaceutical to a patient: the risk to the patient and the risk to critical groups exposed to the patient. 1) For the scope of risk assessment in protection against diagnostic ionizing radiation, it is necessary to determine the internal radiation dose to specific body organs and tissues of patients. For this purpose, absorbed dose from intravenously administered 99mTc-MDP, 99mTc-MIBI, and 111In- Ibritumomab Tiuxetan were calculated using the MIRDose model version 3.0. 2) Patients who have administered radiopharmaceuticals could be a source of radiation to their relatives, medical nurses and people who have contact them. In this study, the dose rates at various distances of 5 cm, 10 cm, 50 cm, 1 m and 2 m from patient who administered diagnostic amounts of 131I-NaI, 99mTc-MIBI and 201Tl-Chloride radiopharmaceuticals at five different interval times were calculated using RADAR software. Finally, the dose rate have been calculated for nuclear medicine staff exposed to 2 patients performed 2 different scans with different radiopharmaceuticals.   


18. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND AMINO ACID PROFILE OF A CARIDEAN PRAWN (MACROBRACHIUM VOLLENHOVENII) FROM OVIA RIVER AND TROPICAL PERIWINKLE (TYMPANOTONUS FUSCATUS) FROM BENIN RIVER, EDO STATE, NIGERIA
by Ehigiator F.A.R & Oterai E.A.
Abstract

The proximate, mineral composition and amino acid profile of the body parts of Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (African river prawn) and Tympanotonus fuscatus (tropical periwinkle) were determined. The length and weight of the prawns varied from 15cm to 17.6cm and 72.76g to 130.65g respectively while the length and weight of the periwinkles varied from 22.72mm to 54.72mm and 1.55% to 7.59g respectively. Chemical analysis was done in triplicates while the data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test. The protein content of the two species was high. Protein values ranged from 67.68-69.71%, fat values ranged from 6.87-7.68%, ash values ranged from 10.16-10.55%, fibre values ranged from 0.40-0.54%, moisture values ranged from 10.25-10.71%, carbohydrate values ranged from 0.58-3.65%. Protein, fat, ash, fibre, moisture and carbohydrate were significantly different (P<0.05) between the body parts of the two species. The mineral values of the two species were high especially that of phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca). Phosphorus ranged from 100.81-106.71mg/100g. Calcium ranged from 44.73-52.00mg/100g. Magnesium (Mg) ranged from 20.48-21.70mg/100g. Zinc (Zn) values ranged from 1.16-2.14mg/100g.  The Ca, P and Zn content between the body parts of the two species were significantly different (P<0.05) from each other except for magnesium which was not significantly different (P>0.05). Thirteen amino acids were reported, 8 essential amino acids and 5 non-essential amino acids. Glutamine, asparagine, lysine, leucine, arginine, glycine and valine were the most abundant amino acids. The ratios of essential amino acids (EAA) to non-essential amino acids (NEAA) in prawns and periwinkles were 1.05 and 1.09 respectively. The alanine, arginine, asparagine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, serine, threonine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine & valine contents in the body parts of the two species were significantly different (P<0.05) from each other. In conclusion, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (African river prawn) and Tympanotonus fuscatus (tropical periwinkle) are good sources of protein and amino acids which can be used for feed formulation and consumed by humans. They also contain considerable amounts of minerals and are low in fat.














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