Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 10, Issue 2 (February, 2012)

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1. A FOURTH-ORDER MODIFICATION OF NEWTONS METHOD FOR MULTIPLE ROOTS
by Zhinan Wu & Xiaowu Li
Abstract

In this paper, we present a new fourth-order modification of Newton’s method for multiple roots, which is based on existing second -order. Modification of Newton ’s multiple root-finding methods. Some numerical examples illustrate that the new method is more efficient and performs better than other methods for multiple roots.


2. THE BETA MOYAL: A Useful-Skew Distribution

by Gauss M. Cordeiro, Juvêncio S. Nobre, Rodrigo R. Pescim & Edwin M. M. Ortega

Abstract

For the first time, we propose the called beta Moyal distribution that generalizes the Moyal distribution, and study its properties. We derive expansions for the cumulative distribution function as power series of the Moyal cumulative distribution. We derive expansions for its moments, generating function, mean deviations, density function of the order statistics and their moments. We discuss maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters. We illustrate the superiority of the new distribution as compared to the beta normal, skew-normal and Moyal distributions by means of three real data sets.


3. EVALUATION OF MULTIREGIONAL FUZZY CASCADE CONTROL FOR pH NEUTRALIZATION PROCESS
by Shebel A. AlSabbah, Mohammad A. Al-Khedher, Mohammad K. Abu Zalata & Tariq M. Younes
Abstract

In pH reactors, determination and control of pH is a common problem concerning chemical-based industrial processes due to the non-linearity observed in the titration curve. We introduced a modified multiregional fuzzy-based control system to overcome the complexity of precise control of pH. In order to compensate for the experimental inaccuracies in measurements of pH in-situ values; an observer for pH is implemented using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The pH control approach and ANFIS-based observer are integrated in a nonlinear cascade structure to ensure the dynamic modifications and stability enhancement. The cascade structure is designed using a multiregional Fuzzy PI controller in the master loop and a Wiener model-based fuzzy proportional controller as a slave one. The multiregional fuzzy cascade control (MFCC) structure is developed to implicate the three main regions of the titration curve.


4. HYBRID APPROACH COMPARED TO GRADIENT METHOD FOR OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEM OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
by Nesrine Majdoub, Anis Sakly & Mohamed Benrejeb
Abstract

In this paper, hybrid approach includes meta-heuristic and conventional method, for optimal control problem of switched systems is proposed. The maximum principal is used to find an optimal continuous input and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to find optimal switching instants minimizing a performance function depends on these instants, in a finite horizon. We demonstrate via hydraulic application the effectiveness of proposed approach where the results are compared to those obtained by gradient method.


5. THE POSSIBLE IMPACT RESULTED FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WATERFRONT PROJECTS IN PENANG ISLAND
by Abdelnaser Omran & Woo Suk Wah
Abstract

 

Waterfront project had brought Penang Island into another new approach of development in the local construction industry. The implementation of the waterfront project has change the norm of the construction industry; its concept, the economy as well as the environment recently. This paper generally aims to identify the possible impact due to the implementation of the waterfront project in Penang Island. The possible impact is divided into two categories which are the positive impact as well as the negative impact. Study was carried out through a random questionnaire survey among the project managers, contractors, consultants and developers. The implementation of waterfront projects has the potential in creating more job opportunities, new phase of different approach in planning, managing and maintaining the project through the whole project life-cycle. On the other hand, environment will be the highest concern in its implementation when it has the impact in destroying the nature beach and affecting the eco-system resulted from the land reclamation.


6. GRAPH THEORY AND TOPOLOGY FOR 3 PHASE POWER SYSTEM UNDER FAULTED STUDIES
by Tedja Santanoe Oepomo
Abstract

This manuscript will provide a step by step method on how a graph theory and topology can be utilized to construct a Z-loop matrix for the study of faulted 3 phase power systems.  The growing demand for reliable electrical power supply has forced the pace developments in electrical power system analysis using computer.  In this, power system analysis plays a significant role for the analysis of faulted power system, eventually for power system protection and control.  By applying theoretical rules in graph theory, an algorithm to construct Z-loop without generating loop incidence matrix for network analysis/circuit analysis was studied.  It has more than just minor special cases with those used in network analysis and circuit computer design.  This paper describes a new algorithm to construct a loop impedance matrix without generating loop incidence matrix by means of a certain topological relationship, linear graph, or simply graph theory.  A linear graph is a graph in which edges/branches are connected only at the points, which are identified as nodes of the graph.  Finally numerical sample project was presented by the use of the loop impedance matrix to solve network analysis studies.


7. FRACTAL ANALYSIS OF THE PORES IN AISI316L SS IMPLANTED WITH OXYGEN AND HELIUM IONS
by Durowoju M.O, Onawumi A.S & Oladosu K.O.
Abstract

Fractal analysis is used to numerically characterize the pores in AISI316L stainless steel to be able to study the shape, distribution and type of the pores. The fractal analysis uses two dimensionless parameters: fractal dimension D and Sphericity, β. The AISI316L stainless steel is widely used in medical field as an implant material due to its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

In this work AISI316L, stainless steel was implanted with two different ions: Oxygen and Helium separately at 100KeV with dose of 1×1017 ions/cm2 at room temperature. The crystallographic orientation and surface morphology were studied using x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The micro hardness was measured by Vickers method with varying load.

The result indicated that the predominant pores in the virgin material are of spherical shapes with β< 0.3 and D>1. It was further observed that the pores are flake like type and clustered, thereby creating ease of linkage of the pores. The ion implantation showed a reduction in the pores, predominantly noodle-like types, (i.e. a shape change from spherical to round pores) and change in distribution from clustered to randomly spaced pores. The surface hardness is found to be 1202HV, 1020HV and 195HV for Helium, Oxygen and Virgin material respectively.

There is a significant improvement in the shape, type, and distribution of the pores in AISI316L stainless steel implanted with Oxygen and Helium. The Vickers hardness test shows that the micro hardness of AISI316L stainless steel implanted with Oxygen and Helium is higher than that of the virgin material.


8. E-LEARNING AND AUTHORING TOOLS : AT A GLANCE
by Maryam Haghshenas, Maryam Khademi & Hoda Kabir
Abstract

Recently, a growing number of Institutions and business organizations have embraced the concept of E-learning. They use web based learning systems to fulfill their educational needs. E-learning authoring tools (or AT for short) enable trainers to integrate an array of media to create professional, engaging, interactive training content, and some make it possible to repurpose digitized elements or learning objects from an existing course for reuse in a new one. The choice of the best authoring tools for the right user is very important for the development of contents for E-learning. In This paper we are going to review on various authoring tools available in the market of E-learning and the need and importance of creating contents in E-learning, finally, we will classify the authoring tools.


9. OBSERVING OF PH FOR TITRATION PROCESS WITH HYBRID NEURAL NETWORK STRUCTURE
by Shebel Asad
Abstract

This paper presents the application of a numerical pH observer integrated into titration process as an industrial replacement of real hardware electrodes to measure pH. The proposed observer is designed with LabView and MatLab. First, two kinds of neural networks NN - multilayer perceptron network MLP and radial basis function network RBF- are used, separately, to design pH observers, then to ensure the accuracy and modify the response, a hybrid neural network is developed, it accomplishes the best features found with both MLPNN and RBFNN. The split-sample method is implemented to select the optimal NN structure. Results are presented and compared in presence of measurement noise (uncertainties in base flow in and temperature variation).  


10. POWER LOSS REDUCTION ON PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS USING TAP-CHANGING TECHNIQUE
by Adejumobi I.A. & Adebisi O.I.
Abstract

The quality of electrical energy reaching the electricity consumers via distribution system is very poor. Also, the management of electrical distribution system is becoming more complex and difficult because of various problems being faced on Nigeria Electricity Distribution System. These problems include; high power losses and voltage drops on the primary distribution networks. This work considered the application of tap changing transformer on primary feeders with the sole objective of minimizing distribution system losses. Piece-wise power equations to determine power loss and voltage drop are presented. To further reduce the losses, mathematical algorithms showing tap changing techniques were also presented with the basic assumption that voltage drop on any of the selected feeders should be within statutory limit of %. The algorithms were tested with three selected 11kV primary feeders; Odeda, Obantoko and Ibara feeders from Abeokuta Distribution Network in Ogun State, Nigeria. The results of Odeda and Obantoko 11kV feeders showed that the percent voltage drops are within the regulatory limit of 10%. However, with the application of optimum tap changing to Ibara feeder; it was still difficult to obtain a statutory limit of 10% voltage drop. With this limitation, the proposed further study is to compare this technique with the use of shunt capacitor and appropriate reconfiguration techniques for distribution system. 


11. DRIFTING EFFECT OF ELECTRONS ON DUST ION ACOUSTIC SOLITARY WAVES IN UNMAGNETIZED PLASMA
by R. Das & R. Kumar
Abstract

Both compressive and rarefactive solitons are found to exist in the unmagnetized dusty plasma in presence of electrons’ drift velocity. Comparision with the earlier findings shows that the factor which is responsible for the existence both compressive and rarefactive solitons  is the electrons’ drift velocity in the plasma. It is observed that the compressive solitons exist for smaller values of dust charge, whereas the rarefactive solitons exist for higher values of Zd.


12. COMMON FIXED POINT THEOREM FOR FOUR MAPPINGS IN INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY METRIC SPACE USING ABSORBING MAPS
by Mona Verma & R. S. Chandel
Abstract

The aim of this paper is to obtain a common fixed point theorem for four mappings by using absorbing maps in intuitionistic fuzzy metric space.


13. NOVEL RECURSIVE ALGORITHM FOR REALIZATION OF ONE-DIMENSIONAL DISCRETE HARTLEY TRANSFORM
by M.N. Murty
Abstract

Discrete Hartley transform is an important tool in digital signal processing.  This paper presents a novel recursive algorithm for realization of one-dimensional discrete Hartley transform of even length.  The transform is constructed by single folding of input data and using Chebyshev Polynomial. Single folding algorithm provides data throughput two times of that achieved by the conventional methods.  Compared to some other algorithms, the proposed algorithm achieves savings on the number of additions and multiplications. The recursive algorithms are appropriate for VLSI implementation.


14. LAND SUBSIDENCE IN SOUTH CALCUTTA
by Amartya Kumar Bhattacharya & Debasish Kumar
Abstract

In this paper two approaches have been mentioned to calculate subsidence. One is based on the linear theory (considering elastic property of the material) and the other on the logarithmic theory. In the linear theory coefficient of volume compressibility (denoted as mv) indicates the nature of soil towards compression and in the logarithmic theory compression index (denoted as Cc) indicates the same. The top 30 m. of the subsurface soil stratification in Calcutta generally indicates softer clayey soil in the first 15 m. having higher mv values and  relatively stiffer clayey soil between 15 m. and 30 m. having lower mv values. Further below the compressibility of the layers diminishes due to increasing overburden pressure also. In the analysis section for subsidence in a certain locality in South Calcutta, firstly data of soil characteristics and properties in different layers and change in piezometric level or depth of water table from 1958 to 1999 are represented. Based on these data intergranular pressures for different layers are calculated and finally total subsidence in the said time span are estimated using the logarithmic theory. This comes out to be 0.4739 m. from 1958 to 1999 and hence estimated subsidence rate is 11.56 mm/year.


15. URBAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING USING PORTFOLIO PROGRAMMING
by Babak Farhang Moghaddam, Amirafshin Fatahi & Pershang dokouhaki
Abstract

Today, the necessity of public (especially urban) transportation systems is a known fact. So, it is of utmost importance to have a systematic understanding of and a basic planning, along with a quantitative improvement, for such systems. While variety of these systems (subway, monorail, tram, bus, taxi, etc.) makes their choice a difficult task for decision makers, it is quite possible to propose a suitable single or combinatorial system for any district or zone inside urban areas with proper planning and effective management. The main objective of this research is to present a method for coordination and integration of different transportation systems working in a metropolis. Effort has been made, in this paper, to determine an efficient frontier on the basis of which one can decide, at any service level, what the best combination of investment-development budgeting of each transportation system may be. We have tried, using the portfolio programming, to define and calculate the appropriate cost and benefit criteria for each public transportation system first and then determine the optimum development budget of each system based on the available budget.


16. AUTHENTICATED AND SECURE El-GAMAL CRYPTOSYSTEM OVER ELLIPTIC CURVES
by Malek Jakob Kakish
Abstract

Information technologies plays a major role in our information society, thus it is important to protect it against many kinds of threats or attacks which may lead to lose of money, or lose of reputation and thus destroy businesses.     

The El-Gamal public key cryptosystem over elliptic curves is often used in modern computer and communication technologies; it enables secure communication over public unsecure channels.

This paper introduce the security of the El-Gamal cryptosystem based on elliptic curves, it suggests a modification that can make the cryptosystem more immune against some attacks. This modification solves a weakness in the basic El-Gamal scheme by including the identity parameter of the sender in the encryption process, thus making the cryptosystem immune against man-in-the-middle attack and known k parameter attack. The modification described in this paper can in analogy be implemented on the El-Gamal cryptosystem over finite fields. Other important benefit is that the El-Gamal cryptosystem described here can easily be implemented and is very suitable on small and limited devices (e.g. smart cards) due the use of elliptic curves.

This paper also briefly describe some attacks on the El-Gamal cryptosystem and the suitable choice of El-Gamal cryptosystem parameter settings to avoid such attacks.


17. WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING OF YTTRIA-ALUMINA-SILICA DOPED WITH THULIUM OPTICAL FIBER AMPLIFIERS
by O. Mahran, M. El Shahat, A. E.El-Samahy & M. Salah Helmy
Abstract

This work describes the Amplification characteristics (small signal gain) and the Noise figure (NF) of theYttria Alumina-Silica glass doped with Thulium. TDFAs operated in the region of wavelength (1480-1510 nm) which is called S-band. The main pump source is 1.04 and 1.55 µm which creates population inversion between 3F4 (upper laser level) and 3H4 (lower laser level), these characteristics were worked through numerical simulation based on a comprehensive rate equation modeling. Gain flatness was investigated and the results strongly confirm the feasibility of using Yttria Alumina Silica glass doped with Thulium in practical ultralarge capacity WDM networks.


18. ASSESSEMENT OF THE WASTE GLASS POWDER POZZOLANIC ACTIVITY BY DIFFERENT METHODS
by A. Khmiri, B. Samet & M. Chaabouni
Abstract

The purpose of this work is the study of the use of waste glass obtained from crushed containers and building demolition as partial Portland cement replacement in mortar and concrete. For this, the waste glass must have the characteristics of pozzolanic material. In this context, a study of the pozzolanic activity of two types of glass clear and green coloured, with varying the particle size of the ground waste glass in the ranges: 100 and 80 μm, 80 and 40 μm and lower than 40 μm, was made. The glass cullet was first characterized by XRF and XRD. Then, the pozzolanic activity was assessed by chemical (Chapelle test), mechanical (compressive strength on mortar bars containing 20% of ground glass and 80% of cement at 28 days) and physical (dosage of Ca(OH)2 by DSC) methods. By chemical and physical methods, it was proved that calcium hydroxide causes the hydrolysis of the waste class, followed by calcium silicate hydrate formation.  By mechanical method, it was concluded that the use of waste glass as partial replacement of Portland cement requires the grinding of the waste glass to a particle size lower than 40 μm without regard to samples colour.


19. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND CONTROL WITHIN SABO AREA OF OGBOMOSO IN OYO STATE OF NIGERIA
by P.B. Ayoola, E.A. Adekeye & O.O. Jokanola
Abstract

Environmental pollution as experienced over the years is known to be deleterious to the welfarism of every organism within the atmosphere of its occurrence. Little does one thought of its effect but the overall consequence pose by ecological degradation has been proved to be insidious as many cancerous diseases that are prevalent in this present age have been traced to the accumulated effect of pollutants in their various measure over a very long period of time.

A case study examined in this report is a locality within Ogbomoso in Oyo State of Nigeria, due to the presence of abbatoir, market place, vehicular movements and some other prominent regions that are potent source of pollutants. Thence the needs for critical assessment of the problem pose by these pollutants in order to improve the welfarism of inhabitants of the area.

Measures of various techniques and approaches that will enhance the proper welfarism of the inhabitant of the area have been suggested and commensurate result is potent to be achieved in the area, if only, these rescue approaches are put in place.

However, overall study of this report exposes the various hazards that the area is prone to and the control measures that will go a long way to produce results that will generally improve the condition of people living in the area.


20. SEISMIC REFRACTION PROFILING AND VERTICAL ELECTRICAL SOUNDING FOR GROUND WATER STUDY IN OBIARUKU, DELTA STATE NIGERIA
by Egbai J.C. & Aigbogun C.O.
Abstract

Seismic refraction profiling and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) were adopted in Obiaruku, the Head-quarter of Ukwuani local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria for the purpose of delineating the groundwater potentials in the sedimentary region of the area. The instrument used are the 24 channel Seismograph and Abem Terrameter model SAS 1000AB. The survey carried out with the VES has a maximum current electrode separation of 800m. Three to four distinct geoelectric layers were observed namely topsoil, sand, clay, silt and fine grained sand with resistivities varying from 80.0Ωm to 2500.0Ωm and thickness from 0.8m to 35.7m. The seismic section shows two layers with first layer showing sand while the second layer shows clay or fine grained sand. The results of the survey have enabled the delineation of the groundwater potentials in the area. Viable boreholes for portable groundwater should be sited in locations one, three and five having a fine aquifer at 11.0m respectively.














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