Academic Research Publishing Agency Press
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2076-734X, EISSN: 2076-7366

Volume 10, Issue 1 (January, 2012)

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1. THE IMPACT OF FACTOR NONINVARIANCE ON OBSERVED COMPOSITE SCORE VARIANCES
by W. Holmes Finch & Brian F. French
Abstract

Assessments are often comprised of several subscales measuring separate but correlated skill sets. Various methods exist to mathematically merge the subscales to create total or factor scores. Two of the more popular methods include unit and regression weighted factor scores. Often these scales are not inspected for factor invariance across groups for which comparisons will be made. The extent to which a lack of measurement invariance influences these different scoring methods is not clear. This study investigated the impact of the absence of factor loading invariance on factor score variances. Results demonstrate that a lack of measurement invariance can have a dramatic impact on group variances for the composite scores, thus leading to a potential violation of an assumption of many parametric analyses.  Discussion of the results includes suggestions for researchers to consider measurement invariance when composite scores are employed to examine group differences.


2. BREAST CANCER ANALYSIS USING LOGISTIC REGRESSION

by H. Yusuff, N. Mohamad, U.K. Ngah & A.S. Yahaya

Abstract

In this study, the diagnosis of breast cancer from mammograms is complemented by using logistic regression. The radiologists can use the results to make a proper judgment as to the presence of breast cancer. Data were obtained from survey questions completed by the radiologist during his observation of the patients. The results using logistic regression cross tabulation was to obtain the significant values between the breast cancer factors. The classification table from 130 samples shows the occurrence from prediction and observation samples, producing percentage of correct classification for mammogram results is 91.5%. The accuracy is compared with validated samples which are 46 samples and the percentage of correct classification is 67.4%. The analysis for mammograms screening using parameter estimation is to identify all the factors that were available in the survey.  The presence of mass, architectural distortion, skin thickening, and calcification had high odds of getting breast cancer.


3. HERSHEL-BULKLEY BLOOD FLOW IN RECTANGULAR MICROCHANNELS
by Moh’d Sami Ashhab, Ahmad Al-Salaymeh, Aziz Al-Muhtaseb & Mutaz Al-Muhtaseb
Abstract

The effect of changing the inlet pressure of blood flow in fifteen different rectangular microchannels is studied. The blood is treated as a non-Newtonian fluid for which the Herschel Bulkley model is adopted. Governing equations for the blood flow were obtained, analyzed and simulated. The simulation results were obtained with the aid of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software package FLUENT and are observed and studied. Based on observations new empirical formulas between the inlet pressure and the wall stresses for the blood flow are constructed. The importance of the developed empirical formulas lies behind the fact that the critical inlet pressure to avoid hemolysis can be found. This critical pressure was computed in this paper.


4. ESTIMATING MUSCLE FORCES OF LOWER ARM VIA STATIC OPTIMIZATION
by Faisal Saleh Abdalla & Azmin Sham Rambely
Abstract

Many researchers have focused on evaluating muscle forces in human being using static optimization techniques, but suitable objective functions used to be optimized are limited. Purposes of this study are to statically minimize the assumed active muscle forces in the lower arm of human being during lifting a load performed on a sagittal plane as well as comparing the evaluated muscle forces among analytical and computational methods. Different objective functions are used, such as linear, quadratic, and cubic functions for muscle forces and stresses. The criteria are introduced and evaluated by comparing their muscle force estimations to the estimations of simplex and Lagrange multiplier methods (LMM) to determine which one makes a good agreement to the analytical methods. The objective functions are compared computationally using linprog and fmincon optimization solvers for linear and nonlinear problems respectively. Linear objective functions estimated only one muscle force for both muscle forces and stresses whereas nonlinear ones estimated more than one, taking into consideration weight coefficients to avoid negative and complex values for quadratic and cubic functions using LMM, respectively. Findings showed that nonlinear objective functions are more realistic than linear ones. In addition, the study found that the nonlinear objective functions for muscle stresses optimized via computational methods have a better agreement to LMM than that of muscle forces.


5. MEASURING THE TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE YEMENI UNIVERSITIES: FROM THE PERSPECTIVES OF FACULTY MEMBERS
by Ali Abdullah Hussein Al-Amri & Abdul Talib Bin Bon
Abstract

The main purpose of this research is the measuring the total quality management in the Yemeni universities Overall from the standpoint of faculty members. In additional to know the impact of variables (gender, age, college, experience, degree of Scientific) in the responses of faculty members.  This research will using a survey (questionnaire) to collecting the data.  According to the agenda Morgan and Krejecie in 1970, 32% is the appropriate sample size for the total population, which means (262), is the appropriate sample size of 5010 faculty members in Yemeni universities. Data will be analyzed through statistical method of analysis using SPPS 17.00 and the researcher will use the statistical treatments like: frequencies, and the arithmetic average, standard deviation, and percentage, T-tests for independent samples, One Way ANOVA.

This research determines whether the Yemeni universities embraced the total quality concepts or not. And to what extent the public universities in Yemen are adopt ted these concept. Through this research we can understand how the universities can overcome of the difficulties from the view of the academic members.


6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INFLATION AND STOCK PRICES (A case of Jordan)
by Shukairi Nori Mousa, Waleed Al safi, AbdulBaset Hasoneh & Marwan Mohammad Abo-orabi
Abstract

Jordan is a lower middle income country with about 5.6 million inhabitants. The inflation phenomenon in the Jordanian economy is enforced by three main reasons; the monetary and fiscal policies, the high openness rate toward the regional and international economics and the weak of structural productive base for the Jordanian economy. The last two reasons make the inflation is a sensitive and serious problem and hard to control or put high burden on the government. This paper aims to explain the impact of inflation on stock prices at the Amman stock exchange by takes a random sample from the companies that listed in the market. So we will use some statistic programmers to analysis the data that The result of the study varies. Not all companies offers a perfect hedge against inflation. The companies such as (JOIN,JOEP,NPSC, ZAR, ACDT, ELZA, and DADI ) are negatively correlated against inflation. Whereas the other selected companies such as (ARBK,CABK, and JOPH ) shows a slightly positive correlation between stock price changes and inflation.will use it in this study. And we obtained the data from the CBJ and Department of Statistics in Jordan.


7. ANOVA OF FUNCTIONAL DATA AMONG SLEEP APNEA PATIENTS
by Nur Zakiah Mohd Saat, Abdul Aziz Jemain & Syed Hassan Ahmad Al-Mashoor
Abstract

Apnea is one of the sleep disorder and many study relates apnea with gender,age and BMI of the patients.  Few study  indicates  that  apnea occurred in REM and NREM sleep stages.This study involves a sleep record from apnea patients in Hos- pital Sarawak, Malaysia.  The objective of the study is to find the homogenous of REM sleep between patients  using the Gini index.  Furthermore the differences of mean functional of REM according to gender, age and bmi. The results shows that  the Gini index is between 0.16 until 0.64. Meanwhile from the analysis vari- ance of functional  data  indicates  that  rate  of REM  was not  differed according to age group, BMI and RDI.In  conclusion,the  distribution of REM was homoge- neous among patients.


8. CONSTITUTION OF INTERACTION MATRIX BETWEEN MARTENSITIC VARIANTS IN THE SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS
by Abouelkacem Qaiss, Souad Nekhlaoui, Khalid Benmoussa & Mohammed Ouadi Bensalah
Abstract

From a kinematic study of the martensitic transformation, we propose an interaction matrix between martensitic variants, whose terms can be classified in to two types:

  • Terms representing the weak interactions which exist between the compatible variants, without internal stress (self-accommodating variants).
  • Terms representing the strong interactions between incompatible variants with internal stress source and associated elastic energy.

By using a new technique allowing the constitution of interaction matrix between variants, based on experimental data, and the results obtained by application on the alloys of Cu.Zn.Al which experiments were performed by Delaey and Devos.


9. INFLUENCE ON PROCESS PARAMETERS IN TRANSESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLE AND WASTE OIL – A Review
by Ala’a Alsoudy, Mette Hedeggard Thomsen & Isam Janajreh
Abstract

Biodiesel, produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, is one of the most promising solutions to the ever increasing demand of diesel, providing a technology for production of fuel of similar properties to that of conventional petrodiesel but from renewable resources. In European countries biodiesel is primarily manufactured from rape seed oil, in Asia it is mainly produced from palm oil, and in the US the main raw material is soybean oil.  As these resources to some extent compete with food production, use of waste oils such as waste cooking and frying oils are more obvious sustainable resource for biodiesel production. In this study over 60 papers on biodiesel production from edible vegetable oils (palm oil, soybean oil, canola oil and sunflower oil) and on biodiesel production from waste frying oil have been reviewed. The reported yields are ranging from around 60% to 100% depending on the conversion method. The different methods used under right conditions generally give high yields; therefore the choice of transesterification method depends very much on availability and local prices for raw materials. As the sustainability should be considered first when producing biofuels, waste oils should probably be chosen over the clean oils and ethanol might be a better choice for the alcohol than methanol. But at the same time, the process should consume a minimum of energy and in reality the least expensive process will be most favorable for industrialization.


10. PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL INVESTIGATION OF PLANTS (IRAWO-ILE) MITRACARPUS VILLOSUS, EUPHORBIA HIRTA AND SPERMACOCE OCYMOIDES
by Onawumi Oluwayemi O.E, Adelowo Funmilayo E, Ipadeola Adebayo O, Edewor Theresa I, Ayoola Paul B. & Odunola Olufolakemi A.
Abstract

Mitracarpus villosus, Euphorbia hirta and Spermacoce ocymoides are three plants that are called by the same local name (Irawo-Ile) in South-western part of Nigeria. These plants were investigated for some of their components and antimicrobial activities of their leave extracts against bacteria and fungi.

Phytochemical analysis revealed that the three plants contain saponins, tannins and volatile oils. They do not contain steroids. Infrared and ultraviolet-visible (U.V) analysis suggested that the plants contain Benzene ring, hydroxyl group and aniline in their structure.

It was found from antimicrobial analysis that the plants extract exhibited antimicrobial activities at a concentration of 25mg/ml. The zone of inhibition of the plants extract against fungi and bacteria ranges between 10 – 35mm with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges between 25 – 50mg/ml for fungi while that of bacteria ranges between 25 – 100mg/ml with S. Ocymoides less effective against bacteria. The ethanolic extracts of both dried and fresh leaves of the plants show more antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms than n-hexane extracts of the plants.

11. A SOFTWARE-BASED FREQUENCY LOCKED LOOP DC MOTOR DRIVE SYSTEM
by Mohammad A.K. Alia, Tariq M. Younes, Rateb H. Issa & Hussein Sarhan
Abstract

DC motors have been widely used in robotics and in industrial variable speed applications because of their desirable speed-torque characteristics and simplicity of control. Feedback motor drive is required in order to achieve high accuracy and better performance. Conventionally, this is achieved by analog servo feedback system in which any change in speed is sensed by tachometer and compared with a fixed reference voltage to generate a correction signal. However, this analog feedback system is not satisfactory where excellent speed regulation and fast dynamic response are required. These features can be achieved by using a phase-locked loop control system [1 ]. In the phase locked loop configuration, motor speed is converted to a digital pulse train, which is synchronized with a reference digital pulse train. In this way, by looking onto a reference frequency, precise control of motor speed is achieved. Reference frequency can be derived from a precision crystal controlled source or any frequency source with the required stability and accuracy. Motor speed is sensed by either a Hall Effect devices or an optical encoder. The Phase Locked Loop (PLL) may be considered as a servo system, which controls the phase of its output signal such a way that the phase error between the output phase and the reference phase reduces to a minimum [2]. Traditionally, the most basic functional block diagram of a PLL is given as in figure 1. This diagram shows the components that every PLL must have, namely: a Phase Detector (PD), a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), a Loop Filter (LF) and a feedback interconnection. The PD is a nonlinear device whose output contains the phase difference between the two oscillating input signals. The VCO is another nonlinear device which produces an oscillation whose frequency is controlled by a lower frequency input voltage. Concerning the LF, it is a low pass filter used to suppress the noise and high frequency signal components from the PD, and provides a DC controlled signal for VCO. If the PD is linear and the PLL in lock, then the filter output is proportional to a phase error.  In general this block contains the required gain and filtering to set the loop’s overall bandwidth and meet the necessary stability criteria.


12. TRADITIONAL PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS (PV) AND THEIR CONTINUOUS DEVELOPMENT WITH NANOTECHNOLOGY
by Khairul Anam & Mohiuddin Ahmed

This Article has been removed for legal reasons.


13. A SECURE DIFFIE-HELLMAN SCHEMES OVER ELLIPTIC CURVES
by Malek Jakob Kakish
Abstract

The protection of information technologies is very essential because information technologies play a major role in our information society, such protection includes data and system protection against many kinds of threats or attacks which may lead to lose of money, or lose of reputation and thus destroy businesses.     

The Diffie-Hellman public key cryptosystem over elliptic curves is often used in modern communications and system technologies; it is one of the firstly defined public key cryptosystem that enable secure communicating over public unsecure communication channels.     

This paper introduce a security Diffie-Hellman cryptosystem based on elliptic curves, it suggests the use of randomization in the encryption process to become immune against many attacks described in literature, this proposed security enhancement describe both the diffie-Hellman key exchange process and the Diffie-Hellman cryptosystem, this enhancement makes the Diffie-Hellman semantically secure, because an attacker will not be able to distinguish between two encryptions even if the attacker knows the corresponding plaintexts. Other important benefit is that the Diffie-Hellamn cryptosystem described here can easily be implemented and is very suitable on small and limited devices (e.g. smart cards) due the use of elliptic curves.

This paper also briefly investigate some attacks on the Diffie-Hellman scheme and the suitable choice of Diffie-Hellman parameter to avoid such attacks.

14. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON DATA MINING
by Tejaswini Abhijit Hilage & R.V. Kulkarni
Abstract

Data mining is used for mining data from databases and finding out meaningful patterns from the database. Many organizations are now using these data mining techniques. In this paper authors has reviewed the literature of data mining techniques such as Association Rules, Rule Induction Technique, Apriori Algorithm, Decision tree and Neural network. This review of literature focuses on how data mining techniques are used for different application areas for finding out meaningful pattern from the database.


15. DESIGNING A COMPUTERIZED MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR MEDICAL DEVICES IN ROYAL MEDICAL SERVICES
by Rami Hikmat Fouad, Mohammed Rawashdeh, Adnan ALBashir & Bassam AL-Sharif
Abstract

The effective maintenance management of medical technology influences the quality of care delivered and the profitability of healthcare facilities. Medical device maintenance in Jordan lacks an objective prioritization system; consequently, the system is not sensitive to the impact of device's downtime on patient morbidity and mortality. Through this paper, the existing computerized maintenance management system in royal medical services was investigated, a list of its requirements was created, such a system was conceptually designed, and finally an object oriented model was built based on the conceptual design. A conceptual design was created showing how the system will function when implemented. This design employed logical view and deployment view depicting the specific entities of the system and how these entities interact with one another. The operator can always add these views and they will be fully instructed on the proper methods for achieving this. With the completed model the developer will be able to generate skeletal code, in a variety of programming languages, which will further assist in the implementation process.


16. POSITION TRACKING PERFORMANCE OF AC SERVOMOTOR BASED ON NEW MODIFIED REPETITIVE CONTROL STRATEGY
by M. Vijayakarthick & P.K. Bhaba
Abstract

This work focuses on the design and implementation of a New Modified Repetitive Control Strategy (NMRCS) for position control in real-time AC servo motor system. The dynamic second order transfer function model of the system is derived and the model parameters are identified using experimental data. Based on the model parameters, the conventional PD controller parameters are computed by optimization tool in MATLAB platform. The real-time runs are carried out with NMRCS based PD controller for a periodic reference tracking. The Repetitive Control Strategy (RCS) based PD controller and conventional PD controller are taken for comparative studies. The performance measures of the above said controllers are analyzed in terms of tracking error. A robustness of the proposed control strategy is also tested. The real-time results confirm the supremacy of NMRCS based PD controller.


17. MULTIPLE WIENER-ITô INTEGRALS
by Hamdin Ahmed Alafif & Caishi Wang
Abstract

In 1938, N. wiener introduced polynomial and homogeneous chaos in his study of stochastic mechanics. He defined polynomial chaos as sums of finitely many multiple integrals with respect to a Brownian motion. The polynomial chaoses of different order are not orthogonal. On the other hand, the homogeneous chaoses (which are defined in terms of polynomial chaos) of different orders are orthogonal. However, wiener did not directly define homogeneous chaos as integrals.

In 1951, K.itô introduced new multiple integrals that turn out to be exactly homogeneous chaos. The new integrals are nowadays referred to as multiple Wiener- itô integrals. They are related to the stochastic integral that K. itô introduced in 1944. We will follow the original idea of K- itô to define multiple Wiener- itô integrals. The aim of this paper is how we can define a multiple Wiener- itô integral for deterministic function f.


18. THERMOACOUSTIC ANALYZER FOR WATER CONTENT DETECTION IN HYDROCARBON EMULSION
by Tariq M. Younes, Mohammad A. Al-Khedher & Mohammad A.K. Alia
Abstract

Water detection in hydrocarbon emulsions represents a serious challenge in petroleum production industry. In this paper, a systematic and an applicable method of water detection in hydrocarbon emulsion is achieved using thermoacoustic effect. The study focused on sensing the presence of water in kerosene using the established correlation between the content of hydrocarbon emulsion and the characteristics of the acoustic wave generated by inundation of a heated rod in the emulsion. This approach was tested experimentally and showed that the produced acoustic signal can be utilized as an informative parameter in quality control schemes of petrochemical oil products.


19. PUBLIC PROCUREMENT PROCEDURES AND ITS CYCLES
by Selami KRASNIQI
Abstract

The goal of procurement is to ensure the most efficient, transparent and fair manner for the use of public funds and resources.

The main  goal  of  the  governments  as  purchaser  is  the  provision  of  goods  and  services  of appropriate   quality  and  at  a  competitive  price.  Procurement  procedures  should  create  fair opportunities for all providers and should be designed in such a way as to ensure a good value of money and minimize the risk of corruption and favoritism.

State Purchase of goods and services from the private sector represents a significant part of public expenditure in most countries.

Achieving better functioning market economy is one of the priorities of the EU. One way to achieve this goal and other elements essential to good governance associated with it is to create an efficient  procurement  system,  in  which  competition  is  encouraged  to  link  with  public  sector contracts.

In the context of EU accession, the reform of public procurement laws, and the structure and administrative procedures are a primary task for the  candidate  countries.  This reform is a precondition for EU membership and for the opportunity to benefit from pre-accession assistance for which the candidate countries have the right.

This paperwork aims to present a clearer picture of how procurement, under the initiatives taken by the European Union, enabling greater participation of governments, and remove administrative and trade barriers between member countries. Many  countries  have  established  a  central  procurement  agency,  to  oversee  the  procurement activities of contracting entities in line ministries and other  public bodies covered by public procurement-law.

State purchase of goods and services from the private sector, represents a significant part of public expenditure in  most countries.  Such activities are regulated by national  legislation  on  public procurement and guided by international standards of transparency open and fair competition1.

Achieving better functioning of market economy is one of the priorities of the EU. One way to achieve this goal and other elements essential to good governance associated with it is to create an efficient procurement system, in which competition is encouraged to link the contracts with public sector. A sound policy and procurement practices  can reduce the cost of public expenditure, to provide  timely  results,  to  promote  private  sector  development,  to  reduce  lost  time,  delays, corruption and government inefficiency.

Measures for the improvement of the procurement procedures include: a comprehensive public procurement law,  establishing a central body for public procurement, which should have full responsibility  for  the  design  and  implementation  of  public  procurement  policy  and  national training programs; developing the capacity of spending units in efficient procurement procedures, and establishment of effective control and the review of complaints regarding the procedures2.


20. POLLUTION STATUS OF BREWERY SEWAGE SLUDGE IN LAGOS, NIGERIA
by Olowu R.A, Osundiya M.O, Onwordi C.T, Denloye A.A, Okoro C.G, Tovide O.O, Majolagbe A.O, Omoyeni O.A & Moronkola B.A.
Abstract

This study was conducted to examine the concentrations of heavy metals in sludge from a brewery plant in order to asses the pollution extent of the sludge before be use as a cheap soil fertilizer. Sludge samples were collected from different points of the plant weekly for six weeks, and analyzed  for   Pb , Cu Cd Cr and Co. The highest concentration of Cu, Cr and Pb were observed in the sludges samples compared to Cd and Co respectively. The mean  concentration of heavy metals  ranged from  22.00±9.03-34.42± 1.87 μg/g  Pb, 79.83±27.49-100.75±28.06 μg/g Cu, 0.58± 1.86-1.30± 0.40 μg/g Cd ,29.33±12.62-47.92±22.13 μg/g Cr and 5.92± 0.97-9.10±4.18 μg/g Co. The pH analysis for each of the  sampling points were found to ranged between 7.12±0.47-7.17±0.35 indicating the suitability of the brewery sludge as a sources of fertilizer  since most crops grow best when the soil pH is between 6.5-7.0 and a high moisture content was obtained. The  mean concentration of the analyzed metal in the sludge do not  exceed the allowed permissible level in sludge sample set by European Union (EU) and United state environmental protection agency (USEPA) standards.














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